Preferred lаnguаge stуle: English (U.K.) <br /><br />Assessment criteriа:<br /><br />Essay (2500 wоrds)<br /><br />Word count or equivalent: 2500 (excluding references and patient profile)<br /> <br />The essay requires you to critically analyse your contribution to the care and management of a critically ill level 3 patient. In the essay you will be expected to firstly demonstrate a detailed knowledge of the pathophysiological basis of the patient’s problems, Secondly, show evidence of good critiquing skills in evaluating research findings so that you can determine appropriate therapeutic interventions and contribute to advance in practice. You will also be expected to demonstrate the ability to critically challenge practice taking into account the dynamic social, cultural, spiritual, legal, political and economic factors affecting intensive care nursing practice. You will need to demonstrate ethical discernment and sound clinical judgment in arguing clinical support of critically ill patients and in advocating and leading intensive nursing care practice initiatives.<br /><br />You will be assessed according to the College of Nursing, Midwifery & Healthcare generic marking criteria .These criteria grade your work under the following categories:<br />Degree to which each learning outcome has been achieved<br />Structure<br />Writing<br />Style<br />Sources / Evaluation of literature<br />Referencing<br /><br />The essay requires you to critically analyse and evaluate your contribution to the care and management of a critically ill patient and demonstrate enhanced synthesis with regard to future care recommendations. This patient should have received multiple organ support (at least 2 systems e.g. respiratory, cardiac, renal) in order for you to demonstrate the breadth and depth of your knowledge. The work should be a reflective critique of the care that you provided during one period of care, for example – one shift. “YOUR PATIENTS PROFILE” is essential in this Essay.<br /><br />ESSAY:<br /><br />The work should start with an explicit introduction, clearly outlining the content of your paper and highlighting for the reader what will be discussed during the course of it. <br /><br />Within the body of the essay we only expect you to discuss the pathophysiological impact and management of three of the patient’s bodily systems. If more were involved, acknowledge these and then indicate which systems you will focus on. Remember to refer back to your patient profile as you discuss the management of each of the systems within your essay.<br /><br />Discuss the pathophysiology behind the reason for your patient’s admission and then describe the process that caused this to impact on the other organs involved, for example; if your patient was septic- where did the infection occur? What was the pathophysiological process that occurred as a result? How did this then spread systemically to have an effect on the other organs that required support during your shift?<br /><br />Critically analyse and evaluate the care that you provided for your patient in response to the physiological processes affecting each of the systems you have identified, including the physiological actions of any drugs that were being administered.<br /><br />You should provide detailed rationales for the care that was delivered, an evaluation of the effectiveness of these and reflection on alternative management strategies. You could also suggest how the care you provided could be enhanced in the future as a result of your experience in this situation, especially with regard to other therapies that could be initiated. When managing patient’s haemodynamic status for example, you may wish to explore the type of fluids administered to improve intravascular volume or debate different advanced methods of haemodynamic assessment that may have been appropriate for the patient’s condition.<br /><br />You will also need to consider the wider dimensions of care delivery when nursing a critically ill patient, for example; any socio-cultural, socio-economic, ethico-legal, professional or political issues impacting on decision making and patient management. Ethical factors in particular should be addressed as these are always present in level 3 care (to a greater or lesser extent). You can raise these points at any appropriate place within the work, for example, if you are discussing limitation of therapy with regards to escalation of inotropic support this may be discussed within the cardiovascular management of the patient. Your work should also demonstrate your ability to identify the strategic role of the experienced intensive care nurse, both in terms of expert care delivery, shift co-ordination and team management. <br /><br />Your conclusion for the essay should provide a summary of what you have written; therefore the patient’s admission, organ failure and management in a concise paragraph.<br /><br />Finally, please remember !<br /> <br />When you have written your essay you should ensure that it meets the assignment criteria above i.e. that it includes: <br /><br />The pathophysiological basis of the patients problems <br />A critical analysis of practice taking into account the dynamic social, cultural, spiritual, legal, political and economic factors affecting intensive care nursing.<br />Evaluation of research findings to determine appropriate therapeutic interventions. <br />Consideration of wider issues impacting on care delivery; in particular ethical discernment and clinical judgment in arguing support of critically ill patients and of intensive care practice initiatives<br />Strategic care delivery and leadership in practice.

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Analysis of Difficulties in Real-time Conversations between Native Speaker and Non-native Speaker


Presently, the world is characterized by an increasing growth of contacts, which have led to increased communication between individuals with varying cultural backgrounds and linguistics (Gomez, De Finade, & León, 2017). Communication occurs in distinct situations and different designs. It is the case as in communication; people carry with them unique cultural and linguistic features that are all prevalent in their interpersonal communication (Cao, Yamashita, & Ishida, 2016). Many studies on intercultural communication have been conducted, which have led to the attainment of significant findings and formulation of theories. Most studies focused on illustrating the perceptions of native English speakers on the difficult conversations with the non-native English speakers. Studies showed that helping took place when the non-native speakers were viewed as customers, fellow human beings, or as group members. The helping behavior was signified by the actions that enhanced understanding among those interacting and helped the non-native speakers in the completing outlined tasks and goals (Zhang & Elder, 2011). On the other hand, the non-helping behavior took place when the non-native speaker was referred as being an out-group member in acting against the actual expectations and cultural norms.

Intercultural interactions are in a position of provoking feelings of misunderstandings. The disagreements are present when the non-native and native English speakers are conversing (Meierkord, 2013). Similarly, language barriers are considered as the key factors that support the interactions between the native and non-native speakers. Nonetheless, different relational, contextual effects have an increased influence on all interactions regardless of the fluency and proficiency in the speakers’ languages (Ivanov, Lange, & Suendermann-Oeft, 2016). For instance, variations in pronunciation, accent, and phonation are demonstrated as having limited influence on the content information is presented messages. However, increased effort is needed by the listeners in processing all the messages contents. As a result, there is the need for examining different contextual factors that influence the perceptions of interactions where there are accents. Various studies have been constructed to illustrate the strategic, contextual, and the role relational designs that are associated with aiding behaviors of the native English speakers in conversations with the non-native English speakers.

Various factors affect how the non-native English speakers interact across and within language groups. There are problems related to interactions exhibited between the native and non-native speakers (Ward & Gallardo, 2017). These problems are such as the designs to employ in establishing common grounds more so concerning the referents of the American and English slang culture. It is difficult for the non-native speakers to be smoothly engaged in informal interactions with the native English speakers. Fluency and highly spoken scores fail to indicate smoothness and comfort in the formal communication. Non-native speakers express a lack of confidence in the colloquial English that forces them to have a preference for spending breaks, meals and different unstructured time with the members of their language community (Young, & Gales, 2016).

Other than that, there are considerable difficulties associated with the conversations between the native and non-native speakers. For instance, the communication between the native and non-native speakers with poor speaking abilities requires a lot of patience, energy, and time more so on the part of the interlocutor. Such struggles increase the level of frustrations to the communicating parties (Cao, Yamashita, Ishida, 2016). As such, there is an increased likelihood of communication avoidance that impedes familiarity in the case where the relationship was not yet established, and there is zero interest between the parties. The study focuses on analyzing the difficulties that are associated with the conversations between native and non-native speakers.

Literature Review


            The concept of native speakers has been controversial as it is defined in diverse ways. According to Litman, Young, & Gales (2016), national origin represents a fundamental framework that is utilized in describing the native speakers, which is assumed that limited nations across the globe have qualified in producing actual native English speakers. As a starting point of the different studies made on difficulties associated with native and non-native speaker conversations, native speakers are defined as the speakers of the original language that individuals learn, more so in the corresponding mother tongue nation and continue utilizing their dominant language. Diverse difficulties are resulting from the conversations between the native and non-native speakers. Different kinds of literature have to discussed based on the complications arising from communication levels between the native and non-native speakers. Before, discussing the difficulties stemming from the conversations, there is a need to describe the different contextual levels that influence interactions between the native and non-native individuals. Lastly, various kinds of literature have been reviewed to ascertain the difficulties resulting from native and non-native speakers’ conversations. Studies from international students’ context have been evaluated to identify the problems faced by the international students in engaging in conversations and in learning within nations that have adopted utilization of unique languages. Additionally, there are suggestions of areas that researchers should focus on in future studies conducted on the similar topic. For instance, scholars should consider coming up with strategies that can be adopted in eliminating the difficulties resulting from conversations between the native and non-native speakers.

Contextual Levels Influencing Interactions between Native and Non-native Individuals

Influence of Accent

            According to Ivanov (2016), accents are utilized in signaling both the out-group and in-group membership through the provision of auditory cues that are associated with class, ethnic, and regional membership. Accents prompt positive and negative attributions through the process of stereotyping. Stereotyping which is an evaluative function requires standard and language norms that provide the basis for judging the different ways of exhibiting activities between interactions. Such beliefs encourage the perception that certain cultures are naturally correct while others are incorrect and unnatural. The interactions between non-native and native speakers yield increased influences that result to stereotyping and accounting for factors that increase misunderstandings among the intercultural conversations. The expectations of the non-native and native speakers evoke different strategic behaviors among the interacting parties. There is then the description of salient features present in the native and non-native speaker interactions

Roles and Membership

            The functions of the group members are the last contextual level influencing the interactions between the native and non-native speakers. The group members consist of social and human levels. Individuals communally identify with others as group members of the same human species under the human level (Gao & Fussell, 2017). Once group and individual identifications are established is the creation of in-group and non-group cohesion and stereotyping. The prominence of any of the group over the others relies on the relational rules negotiated in different contexts. For example, the membership of identifying customers ends up trapping national identity when the sellers are interested in making sales. In the case where the customers go against the expected norms, then the sellers perceive their nationality as being highly salient. As such, the seller terms the customers as being a member of an out-group. The perception of people and others as belonging to certain groups comprises of the educational process. In fact, the greatest deal of the knowledge of the members of the society concerning the community is entire regarding categories. It is the classes that access the commonsense knowledge among groups in accomplishing normal activities such as identifying their membership. Membership is enacted by individuals within categories in supporting the interpretation of actions and performances assigned to different categories. Therefore, in the case where the interlocutors employ the categories, then memberships are established which results to expectations that affect the competencies among the interacting parties.

Components of Native and Non-native Speaker Interactions

            The non-native speakers utilize perfect grammar. The initial things learned from new languages are the primary construct of the grammar. Individuals start by improving the language with the usage of perfect tense and putting objects and subjects in their actual areas. A lot of immersion and practice is required in learning the natural slang and abbreviations of other languages. Common euphemism is another component of the native speakers. Gao & Fussell (2017) postulated that euphemisms are utilized in language to soften any difficult topics. For instance, in the United States’ English, animal euthanasia is commonly referred to as dog euthanization. In English language, euphemisms are utilized making them be accepted as actual default terms. The non-native speakers are typically surrounded by unfamiliar and new euphemisms which a greater challenge when it comes to learning new languages at the same time affecting communication speed between the native and non-native speakers.

Additionally, non-native speakers mimic accents unintentionally. Accent mimicry is a highly annoying quirk when it comes to communicating with native and non-native speakers. Learning how to speak and understanding new languages requires increased attention to the native speakers in trying to understand their accent and intonation. Other than that, there is the component of native speakers sputtering. Native speakers babble as it is easy for them to blend words. They are also used to speaking their language, and other speakers can understand them as well. As such, the native speakers take advantage of their quick speaking skills and forget to pace themselves to be easily understood when they are conversing with the non-native speakers. Therefore, there is increased difficulty of exchanging ideas between the native and non-native speakers. Lastly, the non-native speakers are not in a position to tune out. As outlined earlier, most of the language learning process requires attentive listening. Before getting accustomed to the new languages, individuals highly strain in listening and in ensuring they hear all the crucial parts of the sentence. It is the case as they lack the advantage of native speaking skills that would aid them in filling blanks in the case where they miss pieces of their conversations. Thus, with conversations between native and non-native limit the intensity in which the non-native speakers can communicate and also, they are also required to be extra attentive during the conversations.

Difficulties in Conversations between the Native and Non-native Speakers

            Derwing (2017) argued that one of the key factors affecting the interactions between the native and non-native speakers is the lack of a common cultural ground. Cultural grounds avail shared an understanding of requiring conversations alongside interactional processes in different cultures. Derwing (2017) discusses that the difficulties in the interaction processes could only be minimized by the creation of a better cultural awareness. However, cultural awareness fails to avail the full meaning of cultural norms from other nations. Instead, it leads to the understanding and the recognition of different standards and areas that lead to interaction differences. Adaptations that follow from cultural awareness in acting by the native speakers can also aid in the interactions with all the non-native speakers.

Conversations with the native speakers with poor speaking abilities require a lot of patience, energy, and time on the side of the interlocutor. Such increased efforts result in frustration to the conversing parties which lead in increased avoidance of communication which impedes familiarity. There is limited relationship creation between native and non-native speakers due to the struggles associated with understanding the native speakers and also, the increased inability of the non-native speakers in understanding the intonations and accents of the native speakers. Awareness of the demands of the interlocutor further causes the non-native speakers to be highly self-conscious on how they converse with others (Ward & Gallardo, 2017). The non-native speakers are hardly motivated in learning more from the native speakers as they are discouraged from being proficient in understanding and learning new languages. Thus, the interaction between the native and non-native speakers is limited, creating uncertainty in the relationships between the two speakers and further inhibits them from developing close interpersonal relationships. In contrast, increased awareness of the situation of both the conversing parties would help both sides in developing healthy relationships.

Gomez, De Finade, & León (2017), argued that international students are forced to deal with psychological burdens in the language learning processes and in interacting with both the native and the non-native speakers. The foreign and second language researchers have indicated that language learning is highly correlated with anxiety and there is a substantial relationship between oral competence and concern in the foreign language institutions settings. The anxiety of language learners in the international settings varies from that of the non-native language speakers. Unlike in the foreign classroom settings, international students experience stress while relating to actual communications with the native speakers.

Pan, Yamashita, & Wang (2017), outlined that there is limited anxiety in the classroom performance and the relating testing situations unlike in the event of communicating. Anxiety in interactions arises due to the extremity between the language barriers. Pan (2017), reported that the international students whose oral communications have limited confidence tend to remain quiet during conversations. In a class, such students also stay quiet and gain the courage to ask questions after class or in other cases rely on the written materials availed by the tutors. Due to the complexities associated with understanding the actual meaning of the native speakers, the non-native students fail to engage in conversations. Similarly, the language learners participate in different forms of pretending behavior to support the existence of their conversation. Here, the non-native speakers claim to understand what is being said and yet they do not. Cao (2016), said observed faking behavior, which she referred as being a fake in the conversation between the native and non-native speakers conversations. Though pretending was active in supporting the continuation of conversations in a smooth way, it was not as effective as the participants were not in a position to develop common focus initiated in the conversation. On the other hand, Ivanov, (2016), supported the same idea by outlining that pretending results in placing all the burdens of communications to the interlocutor, who is the native speaker.

In a different study conducted by Young, & Gales (2016), the international students appeared to experience their social status variations immediately when they arrived in the United States. Differences in social status experienced by the international students related to the disengagement encountered by the elderly during their aging processes. While the attainment of physical abilities among the older is unavoidable during the aging process, studies suggested that failing to hear is an issue that affects the elderly psychologically, undermining their self-image effectiveness. Due to disengagement, the older people end up adopting the pretending behavior which enables them to make up for all their inhibited communicative abilities. Young, & Gales (2016), noted that the strategy of pretending among the elderly in aiming to understand conversations is highly ineffective when looked out regarding usefulness in helping to comprehend close conversations. However, pretending has increased the possibility of helping the old both socially and psychologically in hearing and in ensuring a smooth conversation. Despite the utilization of similar strategies, there is a fundamental difference between the international and elderly persons. The hearing disengagement among the elderly possesses language proficiency alongside sufficient cultural backgrounds. On the contrary, the international students have the serious hearing ability, but they have limited or no communication skills and host nation cultural backgrounds.

From another international student study conducted by Wong, Mok, & Chung (2017), anxiety was outlined to be as a result of past conversations. For instance, as native speakers in their nation, and now international students had experienced conversations with the non-native speakers. But on moving abroad, the international students’ statutes changed to those of the non-native speakers. At the time, they recall their experience as native speakers based on what they felt while as native speakers alongside how they perceived the non-native speaker’s interlocutors at the time of their conversations. The Greater fear is expressed by the native speakers that recognized the non-native speakers negatively, fearing that they would also be perceived negatively.

Wong (2017), noted that language proficiency is an essential factor that results in psychological pressure in the event of communication between the native and non-native speakers. A study by Ivanov (2016) indicates that language proficiency hardly affects the satisfaction levels of different group interactions. The relationship between the satisfaction levels and contribution levels during conversations from the native speakers such as a restatement of words and slow talking has a positive correlation. The non-native speakers are forced to perfect their hearing to avoid the unpleasant outcomes that result from miscommunication. Wong (2016) agreed with Ivanov (2016), by stating that receiving and understanding information correctly is a crucial aspect during conversations, but it is challenging to attain due to the language barrier created between the native and non-native speakers. In most cases, people fail to understand whether they have achieved the required information in the right manner, which results to repetition.

Keeping conversations open is another difficulty associated with conversations between the native and non-native speakers. Ishihara & Cohen (2014) noted that the levels of uncertainty to the converting partners decrease there is increased time that is spent for interacting. The process of creating a relationship between the communicating parties, enables individuals to consider spending more time to be in a position to increase the intimacy levels. Close intimacy levels hard to attain between the conversing parties s interactions between native and non-native speakers increase uncertainty due to language barriers, which limits the ability to build strong communication ties. Increased familiarity among individuals is vital in developing communicating relationships. On the contrary, in cases where either of the conversing parties has to interact, then relationship development is paralyzed, hindering the continuation of conversations.

Erman & Lewis (2015) argued that conversations between the native and non-native speakers are faced with the difficulties of social pressures. Individuals always attain some influence from their society due to the commonality developed in the community. According to Erman & Lewis (2015), are raised to be socially adjusted at all ages and to perceive others as being universal. All persons attain the universality unconsciously in their societies, and the social validity is encountered where there are different ideas. Native and non-native speakers aim at engaging in conversations to accomplish common grounds. Unfortunately, the non-native speakers fail to express their opinions based on their social requirements but by the social demands of the native speakers. Pressure exists where the non-native speakers are tone between which requirements to exhibit while conversing.

Also, Gries & Adelman (2014) outlined that the conversation difficulties between the native and non-native speakers are showed through the responses showed the responses of all the participants. There may be tolerance of failing to exhibit responses based on the conversation on the subject. However, constant response action representation results to violence which is showed by the variations in the expected outcomes. Such varying behaviors lead to increased feelings of frustrations among the native speakers. For example, the international travelers may experience general unpleasant feelings, such as the experience of crisis that is characterized by anxiety, frustrations, and inadequacy. Gries & Adelman (2014), provided that learning can only reduce the frustrations and adapt all issues and matters of the host nations in demonstrating all the intercultural competencies. Competency represents the general impression that results from extreme communicative behaviors. Hwang, Brennan, & Huffman (2015), suggested that the communication competencies comprises of the knowledge of all the behaviors that are essential within the context of interacting and demonstrating on the utilization of knowledge. Individuals must not only understand what to do in particular context but should also behave by the context to be perceived as being competent. Non-verbal communications are poorly represented in the lack of competency during conversations between the verbal and non-verbal speakers, hence exhibiting roles performances poorly.

The decisions of participating in aiding behaviors are outlined by the ascription of native speakers in the out-group and in-group of non-native speakers. According to Donaldson (2017), the categorization of individuals is based on the context and the activities that are associated and expected from the entire membership role. Further, Donaldson (2017), provided that the native speakers are in a better position of identifying the normative conversational practices that are supposed to be exhibited in particular contexts. On the same, the native speakers have expectations that the non-native speakers should perform competently and appropriately regardless of the role salience such as food server or contextual influence such as business settings. In the case where there are expected violations, all the non-native speakers are regarded as being in the out-group membership. In conjunction with Donaldson (2017), Hanawa, Song, & Tang (2017), perceived that violations of the expected norms highly led to increased frustrations among the native speakers. In specific, in the case where the native speakers critique the performance quality which leads them to withdraw, quit and result in increased difficulties in taking up conversations with the non-native speakers that as being part of the non-native speakers under the out-group members. Further, they are classified as those that profoundly violate all the outlined conventional role norms. According to Ahmad (2017), the stated trend is prevalent is prevalent in most non-business and business contexts. For instance, in the business settings, the native speakers have increased expectations that the non-native speakers perform with increased competence by understanding that all the roles of the workers are to assist all the customers.

Meierkord (2013) explains that accent is one of the biggest challenges affecting communication between native and non-native speakers. The author suggests that the non-native speakers have an accent from their mother tongue which affects their pronunciation of words. He further alludes that the non-native accents may result in misunderstanding during a conversation between the individuals and native speakers. Conklin and Schmitt (2008) also add that most non-native speakers have an issue with word pronunciation because they transfer phonological rules used in their mother tongue to their new language.  The authors also add that accent is most common among the non-native speakers because they implement strategies that are like those used in the primary language or their mother tongue. Native speakers do not have an accent because they are familiar with the language since it is their primary language (Conklin & Schmitt, 2008). Therefore, the natives fail to understand some words spoken by the non-natives who have an accent. Meierkord (2013) explains that the non-native’s accent results in some words losing their meaning or having another meaning thus resulting in misunderstandings. According to the author, there is a misconception between the native and non-native speakers that cause difficulties in communication. It is therefore certain that accent results in misunderstandings thus making communication challenging between the native and non-native speakers.

Non-native speakers majorly use body language to explain their ideas which may be challenging because their meaning may be misapprehended by the natives who share a different culture (Biesenbach-Lucas, 2007).  The author explains that when people use their non-native language, they find it extremely difficult to express their ideas thus they rely much on body language to emphasize their points. Due to cultural differences between the native and non-native speakers, misunderstandings may occur. Best and Tyler (2007) agrees with the Biesenbach-Lucas (2007) idea that non-native speakers use excessive body language that results in some misunderstandings between them and native speakers. Beat and Tyler (2007) further suggest that misunderstandings occur since the two groups of people share a different culture. The difference in the cultures of the native and non-native speakers results in the variations in the meanings of body language. Beat and Tyler (2007) further concluded that since a body language may have a different meaning between the native and non-native speakers, then the excessive use of body language by the non-native speakers’ results in misinterpretations of information.  Moussu and Llurda (2008) also alludes that non-natives tend to be very careful during conversations to avoid making mistakes. Over consciousness results in the use of hand gestures and raising of shoulders which the natives find abnormal. Moussu and Llurda (2008) explain that most native speakers find the non-natives weird and unusual for using too much of body language. Discrimination thus exists during conversations between the natives and non-native speakers. It is thus clear that the challenge of misinterpretation of information and discrimination between non-native and native speakers due to excessive use of body language is a major communication problem between the two groups.

Grammer is also a major challenge between the native and non-native speakers because it causes anxiety during communication as per Mauranen (2012). The author explains that most non-native speakers have difficulties with their grammar thus creating tension among them since they have to think before formulating sentences. Non –native speakers have problems with their grammar thus the natives may not understand them during conversations. As per FernandezDobao (2012) some native speakers may not know that the non-native speakers struggle to communicate with them. Some of them laugh at the non-native speakers giving them anxiety whenever they talk. The non-native speakers are forced to construct sentences making sure they are grammatically correct before talking to avoid embracing themselves. Excess tension brought about by grammatical errors results in an inadequate communication between the natives and non-natives. Best and Tyler (2007) brings the idea that grammar problems also lead to misinterpretation of information. The authors stated that grammatical errors sometimes result in a change of meaning of a sentence thus resulting in misunderstanding. Therefore, natives and non-natives have a challenge communicating due to grammar problems that lead to misinterpretation of information.

Inhibition and low participation is also a major problem affecting communication among the natives and non-natives. A study conducted by Zhang and Elder (2010) in the USA realized that students that were non-natives had inhibition problems thus affecting the communication among the natives and non-native students. The study also found that Chinese students living in the USA had difficulties conversing with the American students because they did not believe in their abilities to speak English.  Mauranen (2012) agreed that inhibition results in low participation of some individuals especially the non-native parties during communication. The author explained that the non-native persons have a low self-image thus are extra conscious during conversations. The high rate of inhibition during the conversation results in low participation of non-native speakers. Best and Tyler (2007) explained that low turnout by one party during a conversation leads to the conversation growing tedious. The native party losses psych thus resulting in a bad communication. It is thus clear that communication between native and non-native speakers faces the challenge of one of the parties having low participation due to inhibition problems.

Native speakers are faced with the challenge of coming up with helping behaviors such as empathy, mindfulness and sharing the blame for misunderstandings that occur during conversations with the non-native speakers (Gut, 2009). The author illustrated that native speakers also face difficulties conversing with non-native speakers that have problems with accent, pronunciation, and grammar. He stated that the native speakers have to show empathy by understanding that the non-native speakers come from different cultures. The non-native parties also have to understand that different cultures and language interfere with the ability of the non-native individuals to learn another language. Zhang and Elder (2011) also added that mindfulness is challenging because the native speakers have to keep understanding the other non-native side which is a difficulty. Taking the blame for the misinterpretation of words due to poor grammar or accent is difficult for the native. It is true that conversations between the natives and non-natives face the challenge of the native coming up with behaviours to help understand the communication problems that the non-native party faces.

Communication between the native and non-native speakers is confronted by low charisma because one of the parties lacks the fluency to tell stories and jokes according to Moussu and Llurda (2008). The authors argued that the non-native speaker has fluency issues thus making it difficult to communicate with the native speaker who is fluent in the language. Moussu and Llurda (2008) further explained that due to lack of fluency the non-native persons lacks charisma and communication becomes one sided. One sided communication results in both the parties losing interest. A study by Zang and Elder (2011) discovered that Pakistan students in the USA did not participate in class discussion due to the lack of fluency. The study realized that the students lacked charisma because they were not fluent. Most of them could only listen to jokes from their friends because they lacked the confidence to participate in cracking of jokes during their free time. It is thus clear that native and native speakers experience little charisma during communication due to the non-native participants lacking fluency.

The native speaker faces the challenge of understanding the non-native speaker due to pronunciation problems. According to Lecumberri, Cooke, and Cutler (2010), the vast majority of the sounds, dialect appears too similar, yet they are not pronounced similarly. There are individual differences in articulation. Along these lines, when individual talks any non-local language, he has to confront certain sound challenges. Moussu and Llurda (2008) explained that the Japanese language lacks the sound “r” in their dialect. Thus the Japanese ought to utilize an option sound accessible in their dialect. While articulating the sound ‘r,’ the Japanese tend to produce the “l” sound as per Moussu and Llurda (2008). Due to the pronunciation challenges Japanese face difficulties communicating in English compared to other individuals in America. Americans find it difficult understanding Japanese who have pronunciation problems due to their primary language. The pronunciation challenges result in the Americans who native English speakers are struggling to understand Japanese who speak English. Meirkord (2013) also agreed that pronunciation problems occur in the challenge of the natives finding it difficult to comprehend the non-native speaker. He explained that through a study conducted by the student with Arabic origin in the USA, it was clear that communication experiences challenges due to pronunciation. The American students demonstrated that they had a problem communicating with the Arabic students because they had a problem with pronouncing ‘’p’’as ‘’b’’. Native and non-native speakers face the challenge of understanding each other particularly when the native individuals have pronunciation problems.


In conclusion, during interactions between native and non-native speakers, individuals adjust, regulate and modify all their non-verbal and vocal communicative patterns in resembling the conversational partners on judging whether all persons are desirable in the groups. People tend to converge in all conversations when they are dully attracted in a similar group. On the other hand, individuals are hardly drawn to all another group, which lead them to diverge and increase the concerns on the issues of accommodating all other persons. Different studies have shown that interactions between the native and non-native speakers are associated with different difficulties. For instance, in the case where the non-native speakers are engaging in conversations with poor native speakers, a lot of time, energy and patience is required. The differences in the experience and the understanding of one’s language increases the ability and the speed in which they converse with the non-native speakers, which makes it difficult for the non-native speakers to understand what is being communicated easily. Other than that, there is the difficulty of keeping conversations open. Due to lack of proficiency among the non-native speakers and the increased ability among the native speakers, there is the challenge of sustaining conversations. While the native speakers are up on the leading on the conversation, the non-native speakers fail to contribute to the conversation due to failure to understand and to fill in gaps between the conversations. Communication between native and non-native speakers faces difficulties such as misunderstanding due to misinterpretation of ideas, anxiety during communication and inhibition which causes low participation of the parties during communication. Authors explain that the non-native speakers experience the challenge of stress because they are unsure of their abilities to speak fluently. The negative self-image among the non-native speakers results in stress during communication which is a major challenge affecting communication among the native and non-native speakers. Additionally, the issue of pronunciation and grammar errors leads to misinterpretation of ideas. It is postulated that a study in the USA realized that the native students explained that they had a problem understanding other non-native speakers from Pakistan and Japa due to their problems in pronunciation. Also, some non-native speakers have grammar errors that completely change the meaning that was intended to be passed. The grammatical errors thus result in the difficulties in communication due to misinterpretation of ideas. The issue of accent among the non-native speakers results in challenges during the conversation. Various authors explain that due to their primary languages non-native speakers have an accent making it difficult to communicate with native speakers. There is also excessive use of body language is a major challenge affecting communication among native and non-native speakers. The authors explained that excessive use of body language results in misinterpretation of information in cases where different cultures have different meanings for body languages. However, the future studies should be focused on coming up with the difficulties attained by the native speakers other than concentrating on the non-native speakers. Also, there need of establishing strategies that should be engaged in eliminating all the challenges associated with native and non-native speakers’ communications.









Reference List

Ahmad, F., 2017. Knowledge sharing in a non-native language context: Challenges and strategies. Journal of Information Science, p.0165551516683607.

Best, C.T. and Tyler, M.D., 2007. Nonnative and second-language speech perception: Commonalities and complementarities. Language experience in second language speech learning: In honor of James Emil Flege, 1334.

Biesenbach-Lucas, S., 2007. Students writing emails to faculty: An examination of e-politeness among native and non-native speakers of English.

Cao, X., Yamashita, N. and Ishida, T., 2016, September. How non-native speakers perceive listening comprehension problems: Implications for adaptive support technologies. In International Conference on Collaboration Technologies (pp. 89-104). Springer Singapore.

Conklin, K. and Schmitt, N., 2008. Formulaic sequences: Are they processed more quickly than nonformulaic language by native and non-native speakers?. Applied linguistics, 29(1), pp.72-89.

Derwing, T.M., 2017. L2 Fluency Development. The Routledge Handbook of Instructed Second Language Acquisition, p.246.

Donaldson, B., 2017. Negation in Near‐Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence. Language Learning, 67(1), pp.141-170.

Erman, B. and Lewis, M., 2015. 19 There is Nothing Like Native Speech: A Comparison of Native and Very Advanced Non-Native Speech. Gunnel Melchers Peter Sundkvist, p.349.

Fernández Dobao, A., 2012. Collaborative dialogue in learner–learner and learner–native speaker interaction. Applied Linguistics, 33(3), pp.229-256.

Gao, G. and Fussell, S.R., 2017, May. A Kaleidoscope of Languages: When and How Non-Native English Speakers Shift between English and Their Native Language during Multilingual Teamwork. In Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 760-772). ACM.

Gomez, A.D.D., De Fina, A. and de León, J.M.D., 2017. Modified interaction: teaching-like and conversation-like discourse on grammar in ELF classrooms. Lenguas Modernas, (19), pp.139-155.

Gries, S.T. and Adelman, A.S., 2014. Subject realization in Japanese conversation by native and non-native speakers: exemplifying a new paradigm for learner corpus research. In Yearbook of Corpus Linguistics and Pragmatics 2014 (pp. 35-54). Springer International Publishing.

Gut, U., 2009. Non-native speech: A corpus-based analysis of phonological and phonetic properties of L2 English and German (Vol. 9). Peter Lang.

Hanawa, H., Song, X., Tang, M., and Inoue, T., 2017, August. Speakers’ Empowerment with Keywords: The Speaking Competency Development for Multilingual to Contribute in a Real-Time Interaction. In CYTED-RITOS International Workshop on Groupware (pp. 148-163). Springer, Cham.

Hwang, J., Brennan, S.E., and Huffman, M.K., 2015. Phonetic adaptation in non-native spoken dialogue: Effects of priming and audience design. Journal of Memory and Language, 81, pp.72-90.

Ishihara, N. and Cohen, A.D., 2014. Teaching and learning pragmatics: Where language and culture meet. Routledge.

Ivanov, A.V., Lange, P.L., Suendermann-Oeft, D., Ramanarayanan, V., Qian, Y., Yu, Z. and Tao, J., 2016. Speed vs. accuracy: Designing an optimal asr system for spontaneous non-native speech in a real-time application. Proc. of the IWSDS, Saariselk, Finland.

Lecumberri, M.L.G., Cooke, M., and Cutler, A., 2010. Non-native speech perception in adverse conditions: A review. Speech Communication, 52(11), pp.864-886.

Litman, D.J., Young, S.J., Gales, M.J., Knill, K., Ottewell, K., van Dalen, R.C. and Vandyke, D., 2016, September. Towards Using Conversations with Spoken Dialogue Systems for the Automated Assessment of Non-Native Speakers of English. In SIGDIAL Conference (pp. 270-275).

Mauranen, A., 2012. Exploring ELF: Academic English shaped by non-native speakers. Cambridge University Press.

Meierkord, C., 2013. Interpreting successful lingua-franca interaction. An analysis of non-native-/non-native small talk conversation in English. Linguistik online, 5(1).

Moussu, L. and Llurda, E., 2008. Non-native English-speaking English language teachers: History and research. Language teaching, 41(3), pp.315-348.

Pan, M.H., Yamashita, N. and Wang, H.C., 2017, February. Task Rebalancing: Improving Multilingual Communication with Native Speakers-Generated Highlights on Automated Transcripts. In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (pp. 310-321). ACM.

Ward, N.G. and Gallardo, P., 2017. Non-Native Differences in Prosodic-Construction Use. Dialogue & Discourse, 8(1), pp.1-30.

Wong, S.W., Mok, P.P., Chung, K.K.H., Leung, V.W., Bishop, D.V. and Chow, B.W.Y., 2017. Perception of native English reduced forms in Chinese learners: Its role in listening comprehension and its phonological correlates. TESOL Quarterly, 51(1), pp.7-31.

Zhang, Y. and Elder, C., 2011. Judgments of oral proficiency by non-native and native English speaking teacher raters: Competing or complementary constructs?. Language Testing, 28(1), pp.31-50.

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Assignment: Environmental Health From a Historical Perspective Paper


In Silent Spring, Rachel Carson uses a very powerful narrative framework to describe the world as it exists in harmony and bliss before the fall into the massive use of poisons in the environment. In 1,000-1,250-words, summarize the key issues addressed in this publication; discuss how this publication has contributed to current knowledge and understanding of the dynamic between the environment and health; and explain the relationship between the environment and health.

Refer to the assigned readings to incorporate specific examples and details into your paper. You are required to use a minimum of three additional references in your paper.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center. Only Word documents can be submitted to Turnitin.






  1. Essentials of Environmental Health

Friis, R. H. (2012). Essentials of environmental health (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN-13: 9780763778903 






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Environmental Health From a Historical Perspective Paper 

Less than Satisfactory
70.0 %Content  
15.0 %Introduction Introduction is either not present or not evident to the reader. Introduction is insufficiently developed and/or vague. Purpose is not clear, and paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim. Introduction is present but lacks clarity and/or depth. Introduction is clear, forecasting development of paper. Introduction is comprehensive; reader knows exactly what to expect. Provides sufficient background on the topic and previews major points.
30.0 %Explains the relationship between the environment and health. Analysis of the criteria is not outlined or outlined poorly. Fails to formulate and clearly express own point of view. Ignores or superficially evaluates the criteria. Draws unwarranted or fallacious conclusions. Formulates a vague and indecisive point of view. Surface level of evaluation of the content is offered. Expresses a preference in personal point of view. Analysis is direct, competent, and appropriate for the criteria. Formulates a clear and precise personal point of view. Thoughtfully analyzes and evaluates the relationship between the environment and health. Draws warranted, judicious, non-fallacious conclusions. Not only formulates a clear and precise personal point of view, but also acknowledges objections and rival positions.
10.0 %Evidence (examples) No examples were used to support the assignment. Few examples were used to support the assignment. Limited evidence is apparent. Evidence (examples) is adequate and standard in relevance and/or quality. Evidence (examples) is relevant and addresses all of the issues stated in the assignment criteria. Evidence (examples) is supportive of the rationale presented. Addresses all of the issues stated in the assignment criteria.
15.0 %Conclusion Conclusion is either not present or not evident to the reader. Conclusion is insufficiently developed and/or vague and lacks any discernible purpose. Conclusion is present, but statements lack depth of understanding. Conclusion is clear and identifies key ideas regarding the relationship between the environment and health. Conclusion is comprehensive and paints a clear picture of the relationship between the environment and health.
20.0 %Organization and Effectiveness  
7.0 %Thesis Development and Purpose Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim. Thesis and/or main claim are insufficiently developed and/or vague; purpose is not clear. Thesis and/or main claim are apparent and appropriate to purpose. Thesis and/or main claim are clear and forecast the development of the paper. It is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose. Thesis and/or main claim are comprehensive. The essence of the paper is contained within the thesis. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
8.0 %Argument Logic and Construction Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources. Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility. Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis. Argument shows logical progression. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative. Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.
5.0 %Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice and/or sentence construction are used. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register), sentence structure, and/or word choice are present. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are used. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. A variety of sentence structures and effective figures of speech are used Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
10.0 %Format  
5.0 %Paper Format (Use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly. Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent. Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style. All format elements are correct.
5.0 %Research Citations (In-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes, and reference page listing and formatting, as appropriate to assignment and style) No reference page is included. No citations are used. Reference page is present. Citations are inconsistently used. Reference page is included and lists sources used in the paper. Sources are appropriately documented, although some errors may be present Reference page is present and fully inclusive of all cited sources. Documentation is appropriate and citation style is usually correct. In-text citations and a reference page are complete and correct. The documentation of cited sources is free of error.
100 %Total Weightage


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economic analysis and based solely on the course content

6 pages in length (Excluding the cover page) upload a .pdf or .doc file to Canvas as 1 document, 3 pages analyzing 1 article, 3 pages analyzing 2nd article –
Flow of your paper should be as follows:
Cover Page – Your Name, Course Name, Title of each Article you will be analyzing
Intro Thesis article selection #1 – 1 paragraph long
Analysis article selection #1
Conclusion article selection #1 – 1 paragraph long
Intro Thesis article selection #2 – 1 paragraph long
Analysis article selection #2
Conclusion article selection #2 – 1 paragraph long
Times New Roman 12 point font size
1 inch top, bottom, right, left margins in document
Thesis Introduction – Underline the thesis statement in the introduction paragraph (no more then 2-3 sentences)
Breath of application – In each succeeding paragraph, analyze several different economic principles / theories from the course which apply to your chosen articles. Use different concepts for each article.
Grammar – is your paper free of grammar errors (Punctuation, sentence structure, noun and verb tense) (Go to the writing lab on campus to have someone prof-read your paper)
Conclusion – Close your analysis with your own conclusion.
Your own interpretation/analysis
Should NOT include any outside sources beyond the textbook – Cite the textbook (McConnell, page) – cite the articles (Economist, page)
Limit the amount of narrative description – please do NOT restate what the article already states
Large breadth of concepts/theories applied – applying different concepts to each article
Cause and effect analysis – limit stating the facts describe how items are shifting to affect economic outcomes.
I recommend you come on campus and use the writing lab in the learning support center to have someone review your paper for clarity and grammar. Also the paper needs to be uploaded in a doc, docx or pdf file type

Because it is based on the knowledge on the book, so pls log into my account and choose ECON202, and click into the library to check the knowledge(Textbook only resource to be used)

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Airline & Airport Operations Module

Assignment (Individual Report)


Select an airline (I chose Air Arabia) based in the Middle East with a specific business model i.e. Full Service Network Carrier or a Low Cost Carrier (LCC).  In view of the aforementioned, you are required to analyze the operations and performance of this airline and ensure the following deliverables are met in the report:


  1. Identify the factors within the chosen airline’s business environment that most affect its development during the past and possibly within the next decade. Also identify what plans or actions this airline can adopt to overcome uncertain times like we had in the last decade and factors influencing those.
  1. Those factors require you to include, but not limited to the following, by using tools such as the 4Ps, a PESTE analysis, the use of Porter Five Forces model and also the SWOT analysis. It is needed to identify competitive differentiation and positioning of the airline and your recommended steps towards strategic and operational improvement, if so needed.
    1. Marketing mix
    2. Identifying and serving the ‘customer’
    3. Market segmentation
    4. Business environment – internal and external
    5. Business and marketing Strategy
    6. Airline product and differentiation
    7. Brand management
    8. Pricing and revenue management
    9. Airline analysis and life cycle
    10. Financial indicators
    11. Distribution strategy and channels
    12. Relationship marketing and promotion
  1. By evaluating performance of this airline, generate a report that lists down the business and marketing strategies that made this airline superior or on the contrary, lagging in the industry. It is required that you identify the airline’s marketing mix to do so – which is included in the list above.
  1. Focus on the product mix that makes the Airlines improve its load factors and how well it handles its revenues and profits. In other words, draw conclusions of what each airline’s best practice marketing strategies are and how these contribute to operating margins – particularly in view of other major players in the industry and in view of the ever increasing competitive environment.
  1. As a supplement to above, assess how well the airline has performed financially during the past 5 years, by contrasting yield, revenues (net profit margins) and passenger/cargo loads. Has the airline adopted the best routing network, convenient schedules for passenger itineraries, fleet planning & assignment, standard business practices and a successful long term strategy? If you believe that the airline needs to improve in any of the aforementioned areas, then make appropriate recommendations on actions/improvements that the airline could adopt.
  1. You should address issues like increased competition, impact of regulations and relevant global issues. Also, the effects over financial performance, ticket fares, cost control, profits and yield management. Additional marks will be awarded for proper interpretation of financial data analysed and not just attaching to report.
  1. Additionally, you would highlight the components of the airport where your airline is based and comment on the airport – airline relationship. Also, whether the association is mutually beneficial and how this participates in the airline’s overall business and marketing strategy.

All used material, studies and financial figures should be properly referenced. Internet and researcher books are considered useful reference for this assignment. Trends and ideas drawn can be based on expert opinions but be careful to reference all of your sources. It is quite essential to gain good marks to mainly be able to identify by contrast the various plans and business strategies adopt by the airline. To that extent, each one of you must research the airline and the industry and be able to draw conclusions on best practices and suggest recommendations for the airline.

The report should include a comprehensive table of content with an introduction column and overall conclusion of the report, proper referencing, professional format and layout.

The report length is expected to be around 4000 words.

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In this unit you will concentrate on the comparison of two religions in a threaded discussion and Paper #3.

? Textbook: Experiencing the World’s Religions: Traditions, Challenge, and Change
? All Course Resources


You should use this threaded discussion to consider some of the comparisons and distinctions between the two religions that you have selected for Course Paper #3. This thread provides you with an opportunity to discuss the merits of your considerations with classmates and your professor before fully engaging in them for the final paper.

? Textbook: Experiencing the World’s Religions: Traditions, Challenge, and Change
? 1.1b PowerPoint: Understanding Religion
? 2.1a PowerPoint: Judaism
? 3.1a PDF: Shembe, Ancestors and Christ: A Christological Inquiry with Missiological Implications–Part 1
? 3.1b PowerPoint: African Traditional Religions
? 4.1a PowerPoint: Islam
? 5.1a PowerPoint: Hinduism
? 6.1a PDF: Buddhism


1. In this initial post, discuss the following:
a. Your selected religions for the final course paper. Using the understanding of religions developed in
this course, how are these religions similar and how do they differ?
b. One or two interesting observations from resources outside of the course materials.
c. How these two religions might differ in their initial response to the gospel message.

2. Your initial post should demonstrate your engagement with the course material.

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The four key elements of professional regulation have been identified as health professional registration, the setting of standards and codes, accreditation and the management of risk to the public through complaints handling (Chiarella & White, 2013). With reference to relevant disciplinary case law (from UK, Australia or New Zealand) and peer reviewed professional literature, explain how these four elements of the regulation of nursing contribute to public safety.


Structure & Marking Criteria

  • Registration and accreditation: Appropriate and relevant use and analysis of case law and literature in relation to the requirements for registration as a nurse, including the accreditation of educational programs (900 words)


  • Standard setting: Appropriate and relevant use and analysis of case law and literature in relation to the setting of standards and codes (900 words)


  • Dealing with performance, health and conduct complaints and notifications: Appropriate and relevant use and analysis of disciplinary case law and peer reviewed literature in relation to management of risk to the public through performance, health and conduct matters ( 1200 words)



Total 3000 words

14-18 references        2008-2017

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ENG 115
Narrative mini essay
July, 25 2017


I Ride a Bike!
Learning a new skill can be very difficult. The skill that was very hard for me to learn was riding a bicycle. Learning anything new is a lesson that no one will never forget. Usually it becomes a stepping stone for everyone’s life, it is like a new chapter. I was always afraid of falling on the ground when riding a bicycle, Also I am afraid of the cars next to the bike lane. I always think what if a car hit me. It was something that I was definitely scared to do. What if I fell? What if I couldn’t even start to pedal? There were so many things that could go wrong with my bike that I almost didn’t even want to ride it. But I decided that riding a bicycle is important skill I have to master because it is exercise plus saving the environment. It is good exercise and it will make me physically stronger. Moreover, learning how to ride a bicycle would make me more confident that I can achieve anything I want. Nothing is impossible with commitment and hard work. Learning something new always makes me a bit nervous. And learning how to ride a bike was no expectation. My father and I got into the park for my first lesson I feel more ease even though I felt embarrassed because of not knowing how to ride a bike at this age and because of the training wheels of course. I got into the park one morning and started to practice, my father was with me encouraging me and push me. my dad had been trying to teach me for a while. For the most part I mastered the art of riding with training wheels, but the more challenging part was riding without them. Now I had never attempted it before because my dad wanted to make sure that I was ready for the big step. Every day I would ride and ride, without any problems or hesitations. I would go around and around the park every time. When the big say came, I had to remove my training wheel as I was a prepared for takeoff I safely secured my helmet, my kneepads, and my elbow pads because if I fall I wanted to be prepared safety precautions. As I took a deep breath, my dad began to unscrew the bolts to remove the training wheels. It looked like a whole new bike. I lifted my leg over the seat my heart began to beat faster. I closed my eyes envisioning myself riding down the street smoothly. As my dad balanced me on the bike I took off. I didn’t stop. I actually did it, as I can hear my dad cheering me on in the back. It was a big day for me and I’m so proud of myself because I finally learned a new skill.

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Literature Review on Starbucks


Starbucks into the China market

Starbucks has established an internationalization approach to allow the corporation to franchises and internationally open stores (Alon and Bian 2005). The market study is at the center of several of the marketplace entry approaches Starbucks is using. The literature will contemplate how market exploration has supported entry of Starbucks into the markets in China (Venkatraman, and Nelson 2008).

Starbucks Intercontinental Business Policy

Entry of Starbucks into developing and emerging bazaars is informed by market exploration. Starbucks carried out the market inquiry to facilitate more profound understanding of markets in Chinese (Alon and Bian 2005), as well as the means that Capitalism functions in the Republic of China. China comprises of several discrete provincially-based marketplaces, an element that makes market study vital to launching contemporary franchises and stores in China. A profound appreciative of laws of intellectual property dangerous to valid market entry in evolving markets (Venkatraman, and Nelson 2008).


Starbucks voiced an entry approach which would address the major markets in China, and that was planned to be as innocuous on the culture of China as imaginable (Han and Zhang 2009). Rather than taking conservative strategy with promotions and advertising that could have been observed by potential Chinese customers as confronting their philosophy of sipping tea; they situated supplies in high-traffic also in high perceptibility locations (Alon 2006). Besides, Starbucks very intentionally started to connect the gap between the culture of drinking tea as well as the philosophy of drinking coffee by announcing drinks in the stores in China which comprised regional tea-based components (Hwang 2005).

Market exploration reinforced the growth of aggressive internationalization approach of China (Zakaria et al., 2005). The all-embracing ambitious plan was to create a self-improving brand. Forthcoming Starbucks clients in China could hope for what Starbucks denotes to as the 3rd involvement (Harrison et al. 2005). The Starbucks experience carriers’ status which is highly attractive to those wishful to Western values or to ascending the pecking order a personal philosophy (Harrison et al. 2005).

Market examination specifies that consistency of the product is significant to the customers of the Starbucks. When Starbucks opened an innovative supply in a new marketplace like China, the finest baristas are directed for the promotion besides to conducting baristas’ training who will continue as soon as the inauguration is completed (Han and Zhang 2009).

Market Investigation Addresses the Emergent Souk Political Situation

Market investigation help to recognize the characteristics of capitalism in the PRC; Peoples’ Republic of China. The standard class in China has speedily assumed Western values as a satisfactory principle of the middle-class. Besides, Chinese clients consent to acquisitions of extravagance goods as the way of trailing quality way of life. Under the communism influence, the Chinese deliberated conspicuous consumption to be indicative or decadent of lack of patriotic orientation. Capitalism in the PRC supports the cognizant population which marked its interests in keeping pace with Jones’ via extreme indulgence consumption. The support of luxury consumption by Chinese administration is explicitly visible in particular metropolises in China. The 2nd Chengdu city serves as a market investigation study in Chinese administrative capitalism support (Harrison et al. 2005).

Chengdu stimulates capitalism at a level supported by the existence of supplies such as Cartier and Vuitton in its inner city. According to Chengdu Marketing Industry Connotation, supplies selling eighty percent of intercontinental indulgence brands are situated in Chengdu, besides the metropolis ranks merely 1/3 in amenity transactions after Shanghai and Beijing. It is effortless to observe how this countrywide positioning toward extravagance goods encompasses to the brands of the brand that is categorized by a particular extent of exclusiveness (Chaudhry, Zimmerman, Peters, and Cordell, 2009).

Market Inquiry Discloses Qualities of Evolving Souk Legal Setting

It is indispensable to comprehend intellectual property rights rules also permitting problems when arranging market entry in an evolving marketplace. Starbucks has applied the laws of copyright to avert its model of business along with brands from being unlawfully copied by Chinese. Four centuries after inaugural of its first coffee bar in China in 1999, Starbucks had itemized each of its first trademark in China. Many Chinese companies have exceeded permissible pledges in their attempts to copy the prosperous model of Starbucks. The organization along with the arrangement of global operation of Starbucks was well-versed by a market study. The organizational plans that Starbucks employed were derived from the experiences of Starbucks in other evolving marketplaces supported a primary appreciation that China is not one similar souk (Hwang 2005).

The strategies of the organization that Starbucks employed addressed diverse markets in China. The dominant culture in Northern China radically differs from the philosophy within the China’s eastern parts, as shown in the diversities in the power of consumer spending inland that is significantly lower than the power of expenditures in the coastal metropolis. The intricacy of Chinese marketplace led to local companies to assist in the plans of Starbucks for development in China; the conglomerates provided clients understanding of tastes along with preferences of Chinese which helped Starbucks confine to the various markets.

  • Northern China – combined project with Beijing Mei Da Coffee Corporation
  • Eastern China – aligned with Taiwan-based Uni-President
  • Southern China – operated with Caterers of Maxim in Hong Kong

The competitive edge of Starbucks is created on products, services along with brand characteristics, several of which have been made known via market study to be significant to clients of Starbucks (Plog 2005). Western products have advantages over local Chinese goods because of a usually established character for steadily higher excellent product and service, an element that set the Western product as quality brands in the mind of the client.  When Western products try increasing market shares by reduction of prices, they wear away the actual competitive plan which provides them with advantage perception of consumers. Besides, Western products cannot successfully upkeep lower price strategies than regional brands in China. Sustain the integrity of brand in innovative markets. The global brand of Starbuck is useful as well as maintaining the integrity if the brand is an essential focus on internationalization efforts of Starbucks (Hwang 2005). The Chinese baristas acted as ambassadors of the brand to assist implant the culture of Starbucks in the innovative marketplace as well as confirming that high values for client service along with brand quality are preserved at every contemporary and also the recognized local stores. The ability of the Starbucks to address varying bazaars is polished by operative along continuing market study. Launching as well as upholding an international Starbucks products does not imply having an international platform or unvarying intercontinental brands. The marketing strategy of Starbucks in China was founded on customization to reaction to different Chinese client target division. Starbucks created a wide-ranging client taste outline examination which is satisfactorily swift to allow them to vary with the soul as well as to develop East Encounters West product combination (Alon, and Bian, 2005). Besides, the regionalization effort is adequately supple to allow all stores to have the tractability from an extensive drink portfolio (Alon 2006).

Reason for the success of Starbucks than competitor

Gripping morning joes along with afternoon pick-up are significant parts of the era for thousands of persons globally, providing excuses of stepping outside, take short walks and revitalize. How diverse one would the 21st Century lives be if there no coffee to energize and buzz us? To lovers of coffee, this theoretical assumption might be a scary one (Berry 2000).

The wish-even require-for coffee is what attracts the masses as well as make coffee such an enormous trade. In nearly all civilized places nowadays, a coffee cup is never too far-off also in urban settings, it is hard walking four minutes without seeing a seller. Starbucks has obtained its fair backlash share at the beginning of current inequalities for anticipated ¾ revenues. When it appeared that the corporation is still expanding, however, that incomes per share are two cents less than the anticipated for the period, stocks fell by 10.99% on 27th July after the business. However, this life-threatening response to the shortfall of Starbucks might merely be a thrilling overreaction. All public companies will unavoidably have its downs and ups. Therefore the large picture is significant to bear in mind (Noe, R.A., Hollenbeck, Gerhart, and Wright, 2006). Over the last centuries, the trend of Starbucks is one of development, in spite of a few shrill recessions-this current one being the sharpest. According to Agustino Fontevecchia, the Forbes Markets Reporter, excessive hopefulness about the expansion of Starbucks in China set stakeholder up for dissatisfaction (Berry 2000). The economy of the world indicated that it could not handle as much as savers predicted in shares across the boards this period, hence the reduced rate of expansion is not particular to Starbucks. Still, the Chief Executive Officer Howard Shultz contended that the corporation would endure being a capital on both international and national scales, drawing attention to that was its 11th successive record result quarter (Porter 2008).

It is no doubt that last Friday marked low points for Starbucks. However, its forty-one centuries of the determination made it attractively Solid Corporation in the outstanding project of coffee sellers (Vogel, D., 2007). The coffee lead launched its primary stockpile in Pike Place Market in Seattle in 1971. However, supplies did not begin to multiply in relevant statistics until late 1990. An essential company point (Frei 2006), Howard Shultz publicly took Starbucks in 1992. From 1990 to 2000, the permit went from possessing eighty-four locations to 3,500. It was an important year; however, nothing brilliant compared to the supplementary thirteen thousand five hundred stockpiles which have opened as from the year 2000. Let us discuss the factors for the success of the Starbucks other than its superiority which continued to draw loyal consumers (Porter 2008).

A Domicile for Everybody

Several people would accept that Starbucks serves up high-superiority brew which helps them influence during the daylight (Vogel, D., 2007). However coffee is different from being the single menu choice. Today stores carry a small collection of food products along with sufficient coffee free drinks making them friendlier to snacks seekers and children (Roberts 2003).

Consumers similarly have the choice to overuse (a trenta macchiato alongside donuts on the side), or under use (a lean latte with a vegan food box). If one meets a Starbucks’ customer, the client will refer you to Starbucks saying Starbucks is the only beautiful and secure place for all palates (Frei 2006)


At a charge around two dollars for a tall (small) coffee, also upwards of twenty dollars for the swankiest drinks possible, it is easier believing that there is more attention than merely decent coffee for the corporation to accomplish such a great victory at these not much competitive prices  (Roberts 2003). Along with its diversity from non-coffee drinks along with on the eat, the ambiance of Starbucks is a magnet. Currently, most consumers cute much identify what to anticipate when they enter the outside part of the building. Starbucks internal in Los Angeles will not appear too dissimilar from Starbuck in Tokyo; a ridiculous warm system, substitute music, biological looking-art, in addition to the barista in a green apron. The whole thing concerning the internal part of Starbucks, from the warm smell to the spontaneous screams, couches, and comforts

 Reliably Suitable

Maybe the dependability of the experience of Starbucks is fundamental to captivating over the loyalty and taste buds of customers. Barista quickly works beside keeps the long line moving. Starbucks has even amalgamated with Square to make upcoming of the checking procedure cashless.  People complain concerning the high prices of Starbucks, however, is $ 2.5 actually which disgraceful for a good joe cup, free WIFI, along with a public setting in which to mingle, work and sit.  Bottommost line, when one walks into a Starbucks, one knows what he was getting himself into, also as the figures remain to confirm, confidence is quite gorgeous.

As our current lives seemed unceasing to upsurge in step and lessen in free-time, the model of Starbucks became even more applicable. Starbucks has a collection of competitors, some new some old, who similarly conceit themselves on providing expensive coffee with rapidity. A few distinguished competitors comprise Tim Hortons, Dunkin Donuts, Peet’s Coffee, also, the Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf (leading confidentially possessed coffee shop in the United States). These well-known corporations show capacity for additional development, however, as of today, the competitors of Starbucks are either more locally-based or merely fail to inhabit the sphere as slowly. Since Starbucks still upholds its advert as World’s biggest coffee chain, with nearly 17,000 supplies as well as including in over fifty nations, the current souk dissatisfaction is not disastrous rather is unsatisfactory.

Rather than attempting to power onto the marketplace, the similar products that worked in the United States, like regular coffee, Starbucks established tastes such as green tea seasoned coffee beverage, which appeals to the local taste. Instead of pushing readymade orders that justify for the mainstream American vendors, Starbucks changed to native client needs as well as encouraged dine-in services.

By providing contended settings on a bazaar where few cafeterias had air acclimatizing in 1990, Starbucks became a defacto place of meeting for managers and gathering of comrades. This means that Starbucks reformed its model of business, particularly for Chinese, instead of inflexible attempting to relocate the whole thing that operated in China and America, so that several products such as Home Depot and Best Buy (Kuczmarski 1996).  The challenges with pushing dine-services in great contended instead of taking out are that income for every square meter is Lee than in the United States. The ordinary revenue for every opening in China is 1/3 of 2/3s that in the United States (Baker 2007).

To neutralize this, Starbucks located itself as a purchase. The standard coffee drinks sold in China is classier than in the United States. Carrying a mug is observed as a standing sign, a means of demonstrating complexity, in a little individual extravagance for the medium class in Chinese (Kuczmarski 1996). The high pricing approach of Chinese of specialty beverages allows Starbucks to have its outlets in China to be more lucrative per supplies in China in spite of lower capacity. Generally, in Asia, the operating margin of Starbucks are 35% in 2001 against 22% in the United States. Excessive products push for marketplace share by reducing its prices however in realism they should be pointing for limits.

No single premium pricing approach of Starbucks fits market demand however it as well allows the Starbucks to frequently squash higher boundary specialty brands like skill sets that counterbalance rising product cost. As urbanization rates of China near fifty-two percent, corporations’ necessity to put into place policies to handle the increasing product cost (Mitchell and Coles 2003).

Starbucks has similarly done astounding work at training, retaining, recruiting staffs. Thirty percent yearly income is typical in China according to compiled data by the company. However, Starbucks has far worst income than the average of the company by little recompense package, work settings, as well as vocation pathways. A barista who has worked at Starbucks for four centuries said that he was feeling being take care of by company management, and he enjoyed the occupation and expected to stay lengthier at the enterprise (Mitchell and Coles 2003).

The services of the Starbucks are on equality if not greater than the five-star hotel. In client interview with many thousand customers in Shanghai, the familiar told the firm that they liked the palate of brands from rivals, however, continued going to the Starbucks since it has quality services. Far as well, several MNCs treat their Chinese workers as 2nd class inhabitants with little development of career (Hamel and Valikangas 2003). Their senior administration positions are awash with outsiders, Hong Kongers or Taiwanese without any inland Chinese illustration. Starbucks comprehended that the worth suggestion it was providing Chinese was dissimilar than in the in the United States (Mitchell and Coles 2003). They were capable of adapting their model of business to fit China while maintaining their essential values

Primary consumers’ age group such as Gender and why

Starbucks holds nearly thirty-three percent of the marketplace share for coffee in the United States (Chris Paxson 2009). It vends almost as much like coffee as do fast nutrition as well as suitable supplies pooled, although its bulk its consumers are in the metropolis or fashionable capacities.  Starbucks has been capable of gaining such a substantial market share by specifically catering to a distinct target spectators (De Pelsmacker, Driesen, and Rayp 2005).


The primary objective of the Starbucks is women and men aged twenty-five and forty years. They explain for nearly half (50%) of its entre trade. The appeal of Starbucks to this client peer group thru hip, new designs which are consistent with its décor and advertising, as well as functioning to keep its brands present status signs. Clients have the habit of being cosmopolitans with comparatively high revenue, specialized vocations along with social wellbeing. This objective onlookers yearly grows at the rate of three percent (De Pelsmacker, Driesen, and Rayp 2005).

Young Adults

Young grownups, aged eighteen to twenty-four, total forty percent of sales of Starbucks. Starbucks locates itself as a dwelling college student can study hang out, write the term paper as well as meet friends (Patterson 2007). The appeals of Starbucks to this consumer directly thru launching know-how immediately accessible, concentrating on community interacting along with aggressively humanizing crisp images. The young grownup onlookers grow at the rate of 4.6% every year (Patterson 2007).

Teens and Kids

Teens and children are similarly a huge part of the target audience of Starbucks. Self-possessed, consumers’ age 13-18 is part of two percent of sales of Starbucks; however, most products for children are bought by a parent. Whether the emphasis was on the steamed milk which baristas of Starbucks refer as sugary, babyccinos, caffeinated  (Jervis, Lopetcharat, and Drake 2012), thrashed cream topped coffee beverages which are so prevalent with teens, kids and teenagers forming a significant part of the business of Starbucks (d’Astous and Legendre 2009). Children go to Starbucks with the parents, both child and mother leave with the mug in hands. Meanwhile, teens use Starbucks as a hanging out place with families or to education. Starbucks might not directly cater to children (as well as risk disapproval concerning the high caffeine and calories contents of some the Starbucks’ beverages). However the corporation does not make its brands child-kids (as well as criticism about the high caffeine besides calorie contents of various drinks) nonetheless, it does make its brands kid-welcoming distinctive kid dimensions for example (McNeal and Yeh, 2003).

Complimentary Products

Specialty coffee beverages accounted for nearly seventy-five percent sales of Starbucks; however, a cumulative quantity of its trade is positioned on vending whole bean coffee along with produce (McNeal and Yeh, 2003). Starbucks has made its coffee accessible for direct online orders  (d’Astous and Legendre 2009), in supermarket additionally offer hand-picked food service openings the opportunity to carry the coffee family of Starbucks such as Starbucks VIA (Yuan and Wu 2008), Seattle’s Best and Starbucks product. These brands give clients opportunity to have the experience of Starbucks at home-based, as well as, it is a place that Starbucks is insistent

(Noel 2009).

Why Starbucks is a high level place to relax and organize events


The Business Case for Social Responsibility

Starbucks described CSR as conducting the trade in a way that produce economic, environmental (Perrons 2004), and social welfares to the societies in which the business operates (Weick, Sutcliffe and Obstfeld 2008). Eventually, it implies being answerable to the company shareholders. There is an increasing acknowledgement of the necessity for corporate responsibility. Clients demand more a brand from their preferred products. Workers choose to work for corporations with sturdy values.  Stakeholders are more motivated to invest in business with exceptional company reputation. Quite merely being communally answerable is not only the correct thing to do; it can differentiate a business from its company earls (Altschuler, Somkin, and Adler2004). Since there is affirmative profits for being a socially responsible corporation. Starbucks trusts it is logical to observe the actions in terms of savings. By capitalizing in maintainable trade practices along with origin states that provide coffees to Starbucks, the company encourages sustained high-superiority supply. In other societies where Starbucks does the business, it invests in local organization to enhance the life quality. Additionally by investing in the partners, the company has an advantage of enticing as well as maintaining capable (Altschuler, Somkin, and Adler2004), industrious workers, and that aids decreasing the company’s cost of training, hiring and income costs. Finally, there is no battle between doing well and doing good (Weick, Sutcliffe and Obstfeld 2008). At Starbucks, there is a belief of doing well and good go together.

Sustainability Is Indispensable To the Company Success

Coffee is only second to water as most common beverage in the World, with more than four billion mugs yearly consumed. Coffee is a massive business employing twenty million persons internationally, besides positioned as the 2nd most sold product in the world after petrol. Starbucks buys coffee at percentages over the product marketplace prices in the World, that is the international reference coffee traders’ use for product-grade coffees) (Kotler and Lee 2008). The dividends they pat differ by coffee type, besides general superiority of the specific coffee, comparative to the eminence of New York C’ product-grade. Throughout the past years, an international coffee surplus has drastically decreased prices at the wholesale  (Perrons 2004). At the closure of financial 2001, the paid prices for coffee on the NYC dipped to $ .49 per lb a level which has never been experienced for the last thirty years during the past year, a worldwide surplus of coffee has dramatically reduced wholesale prices. At the end of fiscal 2001, prices paid for coffee on the “New York C” had dip to $0.48/lb—a level not seen in nearly 30 years.

The drop of prices affected growers, specifically the small-scale farmers which nearly produced ¾ coffee supply in the world. Starbucks buys coffees from majority of these small scale farmers, multi-generation farms, disbursing best prices which allow farmers to provide for their children additionally preserve their farmhouses. As Starbucks trade enlarges, so do the needs of the farmers grow. While Starbucks buys about 1% of the international coffee supply (Kotler and Lee 2008), the acquisitions of the company is only the uppermost eminence arabica coffee bean internationally grown (Kotler and Lee 2008).  Because of Starbucks remarkably high principles for excellence coffees, one of the company’s most significant needs is securing long-lasting supply of unroasted green coffees from the farmers the company knows and trusts. The maintainability if the farmhouses is fundamentally connected to the success of the company. Starbucks identifies the significance of assisting farmers to make sure that farmers have a supportable source of revenue. To solve this issue, the company has shifted from New York C-based method pricing, centering on numerous approaches such as safeguarding more conventions based on downright, discussed prices, discussing more long lasting contracts, increasing the quantity of purchased coffee directly from cooperatives and farms, helping coffee growers to gain access to reasonable credit. Moreover, introducing innovative coffee obtaining guideline which rewards agriculturalists for using maintainable growing practice, providing fiscal supports for educational and health projects which directly gain growers alongside their societies, and finally, increasing the company’s supportable coffee categories, obligation to origins, comprising Shade Grown Mexico besides Fair Trade Certified Coffee(Kotler and Lee 2008). All these benefits explain why people think that Starbucks is the best place to relax and organize events.










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International market entry strategy proposal


Widening globalization and increasing deregulation of markets is offering companies an opportunity to expand into foreign countries around the world (Vaidya 2006). Thus, more firms are interested in expanding their operations and activities outside their domestic countries (Agarwal & Ramaswami 1992). That is, companies across the globe expand out of their national boundaries to become competitive in the global context (Laksiri 2013). This is because foreign markets, especially in emerging economies, offer opportunities to achieve swift corporate growth (Cavusgil, Ghauri, & Agarwal 2002). However, there also challenges associated with internationalization due to various factors. For instance, social, economic, political, legal, and cultural factors vary from one country to another (Buckley & Casson 1998). This implies that suitability of different international market entry strategies differ in varied situations at different times.

Research problem

The choice of international market entry mode has become a vital strategy decision for companies planning to internationalize (Sadaghiani, Dehghan & Zand 2011). This is because a company wishing to enter into international markets must formulate a crucial strategic decision on which international market entry strategy to use (Lymbersky 2008; Drabner 2003). The most common international market entry strategies encompass licensing, sole venture, exporting, and joint venture (Agarwal & Ramaswami 1992). Nonetheless, previous studies have failed to offer a generally accepted strategy for international market entry. Because of this, many companies experience critical challenges when making strategic choices regarding the international market entry strategy to use despite of increased ease of entering into foreign markets. Therefore, there is a great need to examine, identify, and implement an international market entry strategy that best fits each case.

Research objectives

The objectives of the research are:

  1. To explore and describe the external environment of the host countries and how they affect internationalization of companies.
  2. To identify and explain different international market entry strategies.
  • To identify and explain factors which influence a company’s choice to choose a certain international market entry strategy.
  1. To explain attributes and factors that make a certain international market entry strategy appropriate in a specific situation.

Research method

Method of collection

The study will employ mixed research methods. That is, both qualitative and quantitative methods of research will be used (Bernard 2013). Also primary and secondary data will be used in the study. Primary data will be collected using online surveys, which will consist of both closed-ended and open-ended questions. This will help to collect comprehensive data from the respondents. Face-to-face interviews will also be used to collect qualitative data from the respondents. The main reason for using these research methods is to achieve a more comprehensive and synergistic use of the collected data instead of relying on either of the two research methods (PCMH 2013). However, there are other various reasons of using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. First, using mixed research methods will permit comparison of qualitative and quantitative data, which will help to comprehend contradictions between qualitative findings and quantitative results (Creswell 2014). Convergent design will be used to validate qualitative and quantitative data by comparing findings from quantitative and qualitative sources (PCMH 2013). These two research methods will encourage reflection of respondents’ point of view. In addition, use of both quantitative and qualitative research methods will foster scholarly interaction. Secondary data will be collected by researching past studies and existing literature about topic under the study. There are numerous sources of secondary data including reviewed journals, books, and other publications.

Method of analysis

Analysis of data will also involve use of various methods, especially linear regression and ANOVA. A multiple linear regression model will be used in data analysis to determine the relationship between various variables (Campbell, D & Campbell, S 2008). That is, the model will be used to the relationship between a certain international market entry strategy and variables that affect the strategy in different cases. This analysis will help to determine and understand how different factors such as firm’s ownership advantages affect suitability of a given strategy in a specific situation. In addition to linear progression model, ANOVA (analysis of variance) method of data analysis will be also used (Reddy 2011). ANOVA will be used to analyze variance between two or more variables (Statistics Solutions 2017; Hedeker & Gibbons 2006). For instance, the study will employ ANOVA to analyze variables between different international market entry strategies and factors which influence a company’s choice to choose a certain international market entry strategy.

Research contributions

The study hopes to find that there different factors that influence companies’ strategic choices when selecting an international market entry strategy. Most important, the study hopes to find that effectiveness and suitability of various international market entry strategies often differ depending on various factors. The findings will contribute to existing literature by showing that there is no single international market entry strategy that fits for all. This will be very helpful, especially for managers and businesses, wishing to expand to foreign market. That is, managers will not be merely choosing a certain strategy to use when entering into new markets, but they will be considering and analyzing factors that would help them to choose the most appropriate international market entry strategy.




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