Prospectus: Sexual selection theory

Natural selection is one of the standing points of evolutionary biology. The struggle for survival has always made different kinds of organisms evolve and choose the best suitable partner for the reproduction. This means that some individuals are more ‘fit’ than others. They are more likely to leave the offspring with their genes and enlarge population. Leaving aside cultural factor unconscious biological impetus plays a vital role in a choice of the partner.

Charles Darwin’s most popular idea was about natural selection; however, he had one more theory, about sexual selection, which was neglected for a century probably because of the puritan Victorian society (Mota 2010). Nowadays, this is a wide field of view, enabling the science to discover mechanisms of animal and human evolution. The cornerstone of the theory is that the evolution has not ended, and although the scientists have always paid more attention to birds and fish, the natural and sexual selection are shaping the mankind too (Darwin 1899). The influence of evolutionary biology is observed in the biomedical research, microbiology, and engineering (Losos et al. 2013).

The evidence of the sexual selection’s influence is a very controversial yet very fascinating and significant topic for the research. Geoffrey Miller points out that the sexual selection can be even smarter than the natural one (Miller 2001). In his book ‘The greatest show on Earth: the evidence for evolution, Richard Dawkins states that the conscious selection is the only sensible reason for modification of species, and genetic change happens on a small scale so that it is  imperceptible ( Dawkins 2009). However, nowadays, people tend to be taller than hundred years ago and have more symmetrical facial features. Bright colors attract not only predators but also females. The sexual selection is usually stronger in males; nonetheless, women tend to choose handsome partners as well (Collerton 2009). The outer layer of the researched issue is obvious: the choice of a partner depends on physical characteristics approved by society and can be proven using church records and long-term study of appearance. (Hsu 2012). The inner layer is the study of genetic changes through the generations; the development of the human brain is also considered to be a desirable option, attractive for the opposite sex.

Although the topic of this research is extremely complicated, and the scientist all over the world are struggling to make progress in exploring the process of sexual selection, this is a new and promising direction, which can lead to amazing discoveries about life on Earth.



Collerton S. 2009. Evolution makes women more attractive [Internet]. Ausadcastin corporation; [cited 2017 Sep 15]. Available from:

Courtiol A, Pettay JE, Jokela M, Rotkirch A, Virpi L. 2012. Natural and sexual selection in a monogamous historical human population [Internet]. PNAS; [cited 2017 Sep 15]. Available from:

Darwin C. 1981. The descent of man and selection in relation to sex [Internet]. Princeton (NJ) University Press; [cited 2017 Sep 15]. Available from:

Dawkins R. 2009. The greatest show on Earth: the evidence for evolution [Internet]. New York (NY): A Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.; [cited 2017 Sep 15]. Available from:

Hsu C. 2012. Sexual Selection Continues to Shape Human Evolution, With Men Becoming More Attractive [Internet]. Medical Daily; [cited 2017 Sep 15]. Available from:

Losos JB, Arnold SJ, Bejerano G, Brodie ED, Hibbett D, Hoekstra HE, Mindell DP, Monteiro A, Moritz C, Orr AH, Petrov DA, Renner SS, Ricklefs RE, Soltis PS, Turner TL. 2013. Evolutionary Biology for the 21st Century [Internet]. PLoS Biology; [cited 2017 Sep 15]. Available from:

Miller GF. 2001. The mating mind: how sexual choice shaped the evolution of human nature [Internet]. New York (NY): Anchor Books; [cited 2017 Sep 15]. Available from:

Mota PG. 2013. Darwin’s sexual selection theory – a forgotten idea. Antropologia Portuguesa. [Internert]. [cited 2017 Sep 15]. Available from:

Ridley M. 2004. Evolution [Internet]. Malden (MA): Blackwell; [cited 2017 Sep 15]. Available from:

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critical analysis the yellow wallpaper using the book literature for composition, 11th edition

critical analysis on the yellow wallpaper using the book literature for composition, 11th edition pages 991-1001 for quotations and work cited page.

This is a critical analysis of your choice of short stories from those listed in bold in the unit assignments. While you may need to summarize some of the story or characters for your essay, this assignment is not a simple summary of the plot; and a plot summary submitted instead of a critical essay will receive a poor grade.
Basic Essay Requirements
Take a critical position with a well-developed thesis statement (underline your thesis statement, which should appear in the first paragraph).
Include at least one direct quotation from the story you select; and it, along with any other references, should be cited in the text using MLA guidelines. (While the paragraph numbers provided in the text can be useful references while you write your essay, proper citations for this essay should indicate page numbers.) Note: Analysis and explication of any quotation from a primary or secondary source is required (the quotation does not explain itself, so you must explain how it supports or relates to your argument).
The essay should be approximately 1000-1250 words plus an attached Works Cited page for any sources you referenced in writing your essay. (Generally, one-inch margins with 12-point Times New Roman font is standard formatting.) Your presentation content and organization will be 80% of the grade while 20% will be based on your clear and concise thesis statement and MLA documentation (in-text and works cited).
Short Story Essay Topic Suggestions
Some possible essay topics for the short story essay assignment are listed below. You can write a perfectly functional essay without any secondary sources; however, for a few of these topics you will need outside sources. You are not limited to these topics; but if you need some guidance beyond the prompt-questions in the &quot;Elements of Fiction&quot; Checklist, then feel free to use one of them.
Select one element of the story (characters, settings, symbols, point of view, etc.) and explain why that specific element is a key feature to interpret the story.
Select and discuss the use of specific symbols in a story and explain how they establish significance within that story.
Compare / contrast the representation of a specific theme within a story (technology, fear, gender dynamics, revenge, etc.).
Compare / contrast two characters from within the same story.
Use an outside theoretical framework (psychology, sociology, gender studies, etc.) as a means to explicate the significance of a story through its elements. Be certain to focus on how you interpret the story through the framework rather than present an overview of the framework itself.
Explain why the story represents a certain cultural / historical movement. Be certain to cite outside sources for an objective account of the movement and to use in-text citations from the story as evidence for your argument.

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The following paper focuses on Florida manatees, the major impediments to their safe survival, and protective measures exercised towards conservation of the species in their natural habitat. Florida manatees thrive in the warm waters of Florida and are friendly and harmless creatures. In spite of their physical characteristics, such a typical 10 feet length and 1,100 pounds weight, Manatees are popularly known as the “gentle giants” owing to their calm nature. However, in the recent years, several natural and human-related events have caused a significant decline in their populations. Among the natural hazards threatening manatees are infection and skin damage from cold stress and neurotoxicity from ingestion of toxic alga in the Florida red tide. Fast boating is another potential hazard for these mammals as it leads to serious injuries, deep wounds, and even death. All these factors led to the classification of manatees as an “endangered” species. Stringent conservation efforts followed the calamity and the federal, state, and local government efforts, as well as efforts from wildlife conservation organizations, successfully brought about positive outcomes, leading to thriving manatee populations during the recent years. The current nature of efforts for the preservation of the species in their natural habitat, including safe boating activity and habitat preservation, is very focused and targeted towards niche areas.


Florida Manatee

The Florida manatee, dubbed as “Florida’s gentle giant”, is the most popular native mammal of Florida and was nominated the state marine mammal in 1975. Manatees belong to the Sirenia order of mammals and have inhabited the western Atlantic and Caribbean Ocean for millions of years. Manatees are usually found in the tidal creeks, estuaries, fresh waters and coastal waters of Florida, and seasonal migration is characteristic of the animals (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2016). Since manatees can migrate hundreds of miles, their range goes beyond peninsular Florida and into North Carolina, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Texas, Tennessee, Cuba, and the Bahamas. Although warm-blooded, they have a very low metabolic rate, and a thin insulation layer makes them sensitive to cold. Manatees can measure between nine and ten feet, reaching up to 13 feet, and weigh 1,100 pounds on an average, reaching a maximum weight of 2,600 pounds. They are herbivores and thrive on marine vegetation, mainly sea grass.

Manatees mostly thrive in Southwest Florida during April through October; until the waters get cold when the mammals usually migrate to the warmer Florida freshwater springs. Manatees abound in specific regions in the waters of Florida including the Three Sisters Spring of the Crystal River, the Blue Spring State Park of Orange city, and the Lee County Manatee Park of Fort Myers. They also abound in the TECO Manatee Viewing Center of Apollo Beach and the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge of Titusville (Mims, n.d.). Although manatees are spectacular and aptly dubbed as the gentle sea cows, their survival is becoming increasingly difficult due to natural and man-made hazards and threats. They are a threatened species and their survival is an immense struggle from natural hazards, such as cold stress, and human activity, namely boating and kayaking. This paper discusses the various threats to the manatee population which led to their declining numbers and classification as endangered species. Thereafter, protective measures at the federal level and wildlife conservation organizations are highlighted, which led to an increase in their numbers and their subsequent reclassification as “threatened” species from “endangered’. Finally, protective measures are discussed and the way in which the conservation of the Florida manatee in their natural habitat can be brought about is indicated.

Manatee Reclassification from Endangered to Threatened

Manatees were initially classified as endangered during 1967 as there were only 600 Manatees alive (“No longer endangered, Florida manatees may be more vulnerable than ever”, 2017). The recent Florida survey by the Florida fish and wildlife conservation commission indicated a rise in manatee population to 6,063, confirming the success of conservation efforts in this regard (“Florida manatees hit record numbers as conservation efforts bear fruit”, n.d.). Experts believe that the sunny weather together with the long-term conservation efforts led to positive results. The survey consisted of 11 participating organizations and a team of 20 observers, who reported 2,730 manatees on the west coast and 3,333 on the east coast of Florida. Further, only 371 manatee deaths were reported during 2014 as opposed to 829 deaths in 2013 (“Florida manatees hit record numbers as conservation efforts bear fruit”, n.d.). As a result, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife service started to review a change in the status of manatees, considering the possibility of changing their status to “threatened” based on the positive estimates of recovering manatee population.

However, essential protective measures led to a rise in their population to about 6,600, which led to the reclassification of their status from “endangered” to “threatened” (“No longer endangered, Florida manatees may be more vulnerable than ever”, 2017). It was opined that a change of this sort may lead to the lifting of essential protective measures, especially since this will cater to the demand of fast boating. Moreover, the status change also had a pronounced possibility to curtail the funding channeled to the manatee population as “endangered” species receive priority when it comes to the channeling of funds for the cause.

Major Threats to Manatee Population

Manatees have been hunted in the past for their hides, bones, meat, and fat by both European and Native Americans. Although hunting was made impermissible after 1893, considerable threats to the manatee population still exist from humans. These threats are apparent when waterways are shared, owing to the widespread boating activity leading to a loss of their habitat (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2016). Manatees also face threat in water control structures due to crushing, and from their interaction with fishing gear including crab trap lines and microfilament fishing lines. They also face considerable risks from debris. The manatee is under considerable threat due to loss of habitat and boat strikes in the form of perils induced by humans.

Fast boaters in Florida injure Manatees considerably. The harm done from propellers is intense as it leads to significant injury and even death from deep wounds (“No longer endangered, Florida manatees may be more vulnerable than ever”, 2017). The boating activity may even cut them into half in some cases.

Manatees also have the tendency to succumb to naturally occurring threats (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2016). For instance, when water temperatures drop considerably, manatees may exhibit cold stress and suffer from infection, skin sores, and emaciation. Threat from cold stress is significant as around 250 species were rescued or succumbed to cold stress in 2010 alone. Another major threat to the mammals is in the form of neurotoxicity from microscopic marine alga concentrated in Florida red tide, which produces brevetoxin that could be ingested by manatees.

Protective Measures

Rescue and Rehabilitation

The manatee was initially listed under the State Imperiled Species List. Therefore, the regulations at the local, state, and federal levels were enforced to protect the animals. To this end, the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Federal Endangered Species Act were enacted. Several other protective measures have been enacted in Florida including the Manatee Sanctuary Act of 1978 and the Manatee Management Plan in the form of a conservation and management framework targeted at Florida Manatees (Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 2016). Some prominent protection measures for the protection of manatee habitat include slow-speed zones in travel corridors, restoration and improvement of Florida springs, and restricted entry sanctuaries. Rescue and rehabilitation of sick and injured manatees are undertaken by critical care facilities available through federally permitted oceanaria.

Other prominent healing centers for these animals include the Lowry Zoo Park at Tampa, which offers acute-care facilities (“No longer endangered, Florida manatees may be more vulnerable than ever”, 2017). Tampa’s Lowry Park zoo performs considerable rescue work for manatees injured due to boat strikes.

Protection and Restoration of Manatee Habitat

Protection of the Manatee habitat is a prominent area, which must be addressed to curb their declining numbers. The major threat to the manatee population is from human population increases in Florida and the development of the waterfront (“Preserving Manatee Habitat”, 2017). This type of development can lead to damage to the sea grass, reduce warm water availability, and even worsen the quality of water in the region. The warm water from springs is a form of shelter for the manatees during the cold winter months.

The reduction in warm springs is a consequence of commercial and residential development, and therefore, the warm water available to the mammals has reduced considerably as a result (“Preserving Manatee Habitat”, 2017). Manatees have adapted to the situation by relying on warm water outfall available from power plants. However, the availability of this warm water is only limited as long as the plant is operational. Therefore, a major step towards protection of the manatee habitat is to protect the warm water springs which provide a potential environment for protection against cold stress.

Towards this end, a number of efforts have been mobilized by the Defenders of Wildlife organization, which is dedicated towards the protection and conservation of all flora and fauna in their natural habitat and communities. Protected areas for manatees have been established, including the Kings Bay Manatee Refuge and the Three Sisters Spring at Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge (“Preserving Manatee Habitat”, 2017). The establishment of these areas is intended to provide a sheltered area for the mammals, where they are safe from cold water and induced stress as well as speed boating and other forms of watercraft. Another prospective ongoing effort is to ensure that natural warm water springs are fully protected and restored for conserving manatee populations. Conservation and maintenance of sea grass also promote the health and well-being of the manatee population. Further, to ensure that a well-rounded protection strategy is implemented, conservation efforts are also directed towards power plant operations, ensuring that power plants adopt future strategies that prove safe for the species’ populations. Expansion of the habitat for manatees is another major initiative taken up by the organization (“Preserving Manatee Habitat”, 2017). The inclusion of travel corridors, warm waters, and food sources in the critical habitat specification of the Endangered Species Act will ensure that important areas are available for the animals to thrive and multiply. The initiative is an especially serious one since it has not been prioritized by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife service, even though it is determined that a revision of the manatee critical habitat is desirable.


To sum everything up, it has to be mentioned that manatees are one of the most gentle wildlife species found in Florida waters. They pose virtually no threat to the human population or the environment. However, manatees have faced considerable injuries and death from natural and manmade causes in the past, leading to a sharp decline in their numbers. Cold stress and skin infection, Florida red-tide-related neurotoxicity, and depletion and damage to habitat were the primary natural causes for their declining population. In addition, man-made factors, such as injuries, and death from human activities, namely fast boating, also caused considerable stress to the manatee population, resulting in considerable injury and death and further contributing to their declining numbers. Several organizations on the federal, state, and regional level have been engaged in the conservation of manatee populations in their natural habitat. These efforts have resulted in positive outcome, recently recording encouraging numbers of manatee species. Nevertheless, to ensure that the positive trend continues into the future, considerable efforts from prominent wildlife conservation organizations are still directed towards curtailing excessive harmful speed boating activity and in prioritizing habitat preservation to promote manatee population increases at an even greater scale.


















Basic Facts About Florida Manatees. (2016, November 01). Retrieved September 12, 2017, from

EFE, A. (n.d.). Florida to protect 57 species of endangered wildlife. Retrieved September 12, 2017, from

Florida manatees hit record numbers as conservation efforts bear fruit. (n.d.). the Guardian. Retrieved from

Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (2016). Manatees – Florida’s gentle giants. Retrieved from

Mims, K. (n.d.). 5 great places to see Florida manatees. Visit Florida. Retrieved from

No longer endangered, Florida manatees may be more vulnerable than ever. (2017). Retrieved from

Preserving manatee habitat. (2017). Defenders of Wildlife. Retrieved from

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course name: Comparative Politics of the Middle East
topic has to do with MENA regions only. you need to choose two countries to do the research on

Research proposal – This requirement asks you to work with themes you are particularly interested in examining. It asks you to develop a clear and informed thesis statement, a tentative outline and a list of 10 preliminary sources that will guide your research. Your grade will depend on the originality and coherence of your topic, and the pertinence of your sources.

dont forget thesis statement a strong one + a tentative outline + mention why you choose this topic.

in the reference page divide them according to the subtitle of the paper

PART 2 not responsible to do for now but keep in mind
further research paper must include Research Paper– Your research paper will involve significant research on your part. It will use the comparative approach in order to study and compare 2 institutions, historical events, or political aspects of your choice based on the readings covered in class. It will ask you to address a specific question, formulate a thesis statement and to clearly express an educated opinion (meaning based on intensive reading and research) on the particular issue of your choice. It will also test your understanding and use of the readings and the sources cited, as well as your ability to critically synthesize the academic material covered and to apply its concepts to specific questions.
Your paper should include a literature review under a subheading clearly titled Literature Review. In your Literature review – you should do the following:

– Cluster sources into 2 or 3 themes that address the main questions of your paper;
– Summarize the main arguments of the sources and say why and how they help you answer your questions; in other words, Explain the rationale for your selection of sources
– Comment on patterns of similarity and dissimilarity between sources and say how they lead you to your thesis;

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The Clean Air Act

Please add to the existing document received from custom writings:

Construct an annotated bibliography consisting of 9 to 12 reputable journal articles. Include at least three articles for each of the following areas as they pertain to the policy you have selected:
o Achievement of intended outcome
o Influence on technology
o Unintended consequences
Include a Title Page that identifies your selected policy. Use the three areas listed above as first level headings. List each annotated article under its corresponding heading in alphabetical order. If an article applies to more than one area, list it under the area that is most applicable. Each annotation in your bibliography should consist of two paragraphs: a summary of the article (100 – 150 words) and a description of the authors (100 – 150 words).

Other references used in the previous paper &quot;The Clean Air Act&quot;

Belden, R. S., &amp; American Bar Association. (2001). The Clean Air Act. Chicago, Ill: American Bar Association, Section of Environment, Energy, and Resources.

Gelling, C., (2013). An unintended consequence of reduced pollution: More storms. The Washington Post. Retrieved from

Ross, K., Chmiel, J. F., &amp; Ferkol, T. (2012). The impact of the Clean Air Act. The Journal of pediatrics, 161(5), 781.

Final Submission deadline is Sunday 10pm.

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Profiling young women with breast cancer


Introduction: Currently, women under the age of 35 with breast cancer (BC) are treated in a similar manner to their peri/postmenopausal counterparts. In addition, similar risk factors such as family history, age of first pregnancy and BMI are used to determine an individual’s risk of developing BC.

Methods: The aim of this study was to evaluate subtypes, risk factors and outcomes in young women with breast cancer. A 10-year review of a prospectively maintained database was conducted to profile young women (35 years old or younger) with BC.

Results: A total of 86 patients were identified with ages ranging from 23 to 35 (mean age 32). The vast majority (88.3%) were invasive ductal carcinomas and of these 72% were luminal, 17% were triple negative for oestrogen, progesterone and Her-2, and 11% were Her-2 positive breast cancers. Only 41% had a positive family history of breast/ovarian cancer mastectomies were performed in 62% and 49% were axillary node positive. In terms of risk factors, 64% were previously pregnant, the average BMI was 25 and 70.4% reported previous OCP use. Overall mortality was 9.3% with a recurrence rate of 7% and distant metastatic rate of 3.5%.The frequency of BRCA 1/2 mutation identified in 13.4%.

Conclusion: Young women with BC have a similar biological subtype profile to their peri/postmenopausal counterparts however they present with more locally advanced disease. Hormonal risk profile differs significantly as pregnancy does not appear to provide any protective effect and OCP use appears to be a risk factor for BC in this young population. BRCA 1/2 mutation in our set of group somewhat higher than those reported.

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Damian relied on pre-contractual statements to enter into a contract with WF. When talking to Ann, the organizer of the expo, He was informed that payment of $5500 to secure a place in the expo caters for rent and insurance policy. She also promised him that his goods would be very safe, but the boxes full of wristbands was stolen., and insurance company told him he does not have any claim. Damian realized there were empty spaces, and few retailers in the expo than promised by Ann. Damian seeks to know whether, he can be compensated for the stolen wristbands and get a refund for his $5500, on behalf of Fitness Tracker Pty Ltd, the company in which he serves as the director.
Rule and Application
Rule one pre-contractual negotiations

Rights and obligations of the contractual parties are determined by contractual terms. In the analysis of the contractual terms, both post-contractual conduct and pre-contractual negotiations may give rise to the non-contractual rights and obligations, independently from, or in addition to the concluded term of the contract. In Gordon v Macgregor the high court ruled that when the agreement terms are written, the extrinsic evidence such as the oral evidence, cannot be used to indicate existence of other terms 1. However, there exist some exceptions to this rule that include evidence that undermines the validity of the contract, where the agreement is tainted with deception or fraud or there was a misleading conduct2. Party may be induced to buy a product by precontractual statements. The precontractual statements are categorized into terms of the contract, mere representation, collateral contract and sales puff. In Ellul and Ellul v

1 Gordon v Macgregor
2 Carter, J. W. Carter’s guide to Australian contract law. (1st Ed 2015, p. 114)


Oakes the Court held that for a clause to constitute the contractual term, contractual parties must have an intention to make the clause promissory in nature, as it is the case of establishing the party’s intention to create a legal relation3. In this case, the intention is determined objectively. Application

Damian, the Director of Fitness Tracker Pty Ltd, so the expo, organized by Worldwide Fitness Pty Ltd, as an opportunity to talk to the experts and retailers attending to promote his wristbands. Anne, the Event Organizer for WT, told him the space in the Expo would cost $5,500 inclusive of a policy of insurance covering any loss, damage or theft of his equipment. This assurance was contrary to the clause 11 of the contract which provided that the Worldwide Fitness Pty Ltd was not responsible for any theft or damage
The statement by the Anne constitute term, which also constitutes the ‘representation’ in the contract and thus it was intended to create a legal binding relationship. To a reasonable person, it is obvious that Damian considered the statement to be legally binding. Based on this argument Damian has a remedy under the common law given that this statement formed an important part in persuading him to rent a space at the expo. Section 18 of the Australian Consumer Law prohibits misleading and repetitive conduct occurring in business. The conduct is defined in section 4(2) of the CCA as including giving effect to a particular provision or arriving at or making of4.
Rule Two: Deceptive Statements and Sales Puff

The collateral contract must have a promissory note, not intended to be part of the contract, must not correct the main contract, and consideration must have been offered5. Pre-

3 Ellul and Ellul v Oakes 5 JJ Savage v Blakney

4 Radan, Peter, John Gooley, and Ilija Vickovich. Principles of Australian contract law: cases and materials, (23rd Ed 2009, P. 56).


contractual terms constituting terms also constitute the contractual representation. In some situations, the representation is not meant to be promissory, and as such, they do not comprise terms. However, when they are not true, party to which they are directed can get remedies at the common laws6. Under the common law, a contract that was induced through the false representation can be rescinded.


In this case, the statement that the fee of $5,500 is included rental and insurance policy, and that the goods were very safe, were deceptive. This cannot be considered to be ‘sales puff’ because a reasonable person would recognize that this statement was intended to be taken literally. This means that they constitute a representation and as such Damian can get remedy after he realizes that they were false. In JJ Savage v Blakney it was decided that elements which are required to determine that the conduct is misleading to include: the claimant relied on the claim and suffered loss it was misleading in all circumstances, and it was done in the course of commerce7.
Rule three: Misleading statements

The Australian Consumer Law, Section 18 offers different remedies for the misleading conduct that occurs in the course of business8. Finally, pre-contractual terms can just be ‘sales puff.’ This is the exaggerated sales talk which is not intended to be taken literally, and this would be recognized by any reasonable person. This means that the sales puff does not constitute the representation in the term or law and as such, they do not have any remedy if they turn out to be false9.

6 Ellul and Ellul v Oakes
7 JJ Savage
8 Competition and Consumer Act 2010
9 McKendrick, Ewan. Contract Law. (2nd Ed 2015).



In this case, Anne claimed that there would be enough security yet Damian’s boxes full of wristbands was stolen. Anne gave the statement in the course of commerce when Damian was about to sign the contract. This impugned conduct by Anne was in all circumstances deceptive and misleading. On addition, Damian was pleased about the insurance being organized by WF, and as such, he found it unnecessary to arrange for his insurance. As a result of his reliance on the statement given by Anne, Damian suffered a loss when his goods were stolen, and insurance failed to compensate him. This means that Damian should sue Worldwide Fitness Pty Ltd for the loss suffered following the theft that took place in their premise.

In Henjo v Collins it was held that a deceptive or misleading conduct falls under the strict liability offense which means that it is groundless whether the three was an intention to misled, or even whether the claimant may have protected his rights reasonably10. This ruling by the court means that as long as the Damian shows some element if reliance on the statement made by Anne, then Anne may be deemed to have involved herself in a deceptive conduct even when Damian had all the reasons to believe that Anne representation was true11. Strict liability applies in this case because Anne is in a better place to know whether it is true or not that the fee of $5, 500 covers even the insurance policy. The Australia law is construed to move the onus on making sure that representation is true on Anne.

Damian can thus only claim compensation for the goods that were stolen, but he cannot be able to request for the total refund of $5,500. Anne statement that she had one space left and that Damián was lucky to get a space at the expo was a ‘sales puff.’ A reasonable person can recognize that the statement that was not meant to be taken literally. As such, Damian cannot use

10 Re Henjo Investments Pty Limited
11 Codelfa Construction Pty Ltd v State Rail Authority of NSW


the fact that there were many empty exhibition spaces and there were few retailers in attendance to showcase wristbands, as the basis for requesting back the amount of rent that he had paid. Conclusion

As a matter of law, Damian cannot insist upon the return of his $5,500, but he can be compensated for his stolen equipment. He cannot insist upon the return of his $5,500 because the statements that only a single space was remaining and that the retailers would be many constitute the ‘sale puff’ and thus in law or term it does constitute a ‘representation.’ However, he claims a refund from WF, for the stolen equipment because Anne used a deceptive and misleading statement that the fee charged covered even the insurance policy and catered for the stolen goods. Even though this statement is contrary to the written statement, the fact that Damian suffered the loss of his equipment’s as a result of its reliance on the statement by Anne, and that the impugned statement was issued in the course of commerce, makes Damian entailed to claim damages for the stolen wristbands.




Codelfa Construction Pty Ltd v State Rail Authority of NSW (1982) 149 CLR 337 Ellul and Ellul v Oakes (1972) 3 SASR 377
Gordon v Macgregor (1909) 8 CLR 316,
Hoyt’s Pty Ltd v Spencer (1919) 27 CLR 133)

JJ Savage v Blakney (1970) 119 CLR 435
Re Henjo Investments v Pty Limited [1988] FCA 40, [42]
Shepperd v The Council of the Municipality of Ryde (1952) 85 CLR 1 Legislation
Competition and Consumer Act 2010

Radan P, John G, and Ilija V., Principles of Australian contract law: cases and materials. Chatswood, (3rd Ed 2009).

Carter, J. W. Carter’s guide to Australian contract law. (1st Ed 2015). McKendrick, E. Contract Law. City, (2nd Ed 2015).

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Measurement Models and Variable Relationships


  1. Measuring variables/constructs.

Measurement model

Make sure your answers are straight to the point. This document should not exceed 7 pages single space.

  • Before addressing anything in the papers, please discuss the following general concepts. Please find and provide references.
    1. Measuring variables/constructs.

What do we mean by the overall concept of the measurement model? 

The overall concept of measurement model is used to define loadings of observed items (which are classified as measurements) on their anticipated latent variables (also referred to as constructs) (Weigl, 2008; O’Leary, 2004).

What is Indicator Reliability, how is it measured, and what is an acceptable criteria?

Indicator reliability can be defined as the indication of a variance contribution which often may be interpreted through the latent variable (Weigl, 2008; O’Leary, 2004). Ideally, indicator reliability is measured by ensuring that 50% of indicator’s variance is derived directly from latent variables. Based on the above statement, it is clear that the loadings have to be higher than 0.7. The criterion that is employed is that loadings that are found to be below 0.4; for instance, in PLS models, they should not be included in the final results.

What is Construct Internal Consistency Reliability, how is it measured, and what is an acceptable criteria?

Construct internal consistency reliability is used to expound the extent to which a construct is defined by its indicators (Weigl, 2008). The mentioned framework demands that different indicators, belonging to the same construct, have to demonstrate high correlation. It is measured by using Cronbach’s Alpha approach, and one investigates internal consistency exhibited by different items classified into one construct. The criterion is to attain a coefficient which can be equal or even above 0.7.

 What is the difference between the two and why are they important?

The main difference between indicator reliability and construct internal consistency reliability is that the former is concerned with whether selected indicators are free from errors and can be calculated using various formulas while the later use Cronbach’s Alpha (calculated using SPSS) to ensure that there is internal consistency. The two are important in ensuring that any given content is valid and reliable.

What do we mean by the overall concept of measurement model validity?

Measurement model validity explains the ability of any selected measurement model to yield accurate results depending on the latent constructs.

What is Convergent Validity, how is it measured, and what is an acceptable criteria?

Convergent validity can be defined as the level of validity attained when all items, included in a measurement model, are proved to be statistically significant (Awang, n. d.; Gefen, Straub, & Boudreau, 2000; Bhattacherjee, 2012). Ideally, it is measured by computing the Average Variance Extracted (AVE). Basically, the acceptable value of AVE ought to be or higher than 0.5. As a result, one has to drop low factor loading items given that they can lead to failed convergent validity.

What is Discriminant Validity, how is it measured, and what is an acceptable criteria?

Discriminant validity is defined as the validity that ascertains that a measurement model does not include redundant items (Awang, n. d.; Gefen et al., 2000; Bhattacherjee, 2012). Discrepancy measures, for instance, Modification Indices (MI) utilized in identifying redundancy in selected models. Normally, when MI figures are high, it suggests that there is a high level of redundancy (Awang, n. d.). Hence, a researcher is directed to delete any item and run tests until desirable outcomes are attained. The acceptable criterion is that the correlation, between selected exogenous constructs, ought not to be more than 0.85. Reasonably, if two exogenous constructs have a figure of more than 0.85, they are redundant or worse still; there is the existence of multicollinearity problem.

What is the difference between the convergent and discriminant validity and why are they important?

The difference between discriminant and convergent validity is their evaluation tools (Awang, n. d.). For example, convergent validity employs AVE and at the same time, discriminant validity uses MI. Indeed, both are important given that they ascertain that a measurement model is valid and insignificant items are not included for accurate results.

What is a 1st Order Construct and 2nd Order Construct?

Specifically, 1st order constructs have observable variables which are the indicators of constructs (Ping Jr., 2002). Studies suggest that the model has four main constructs which include confidence cooperative, decision making, affective commitment, and goal congruence. Besides this, 2nd order constructs “have unobservable constructs as their indicators” (Ping, 2002). Examples of 2nd order constructs are networking, risk-taking, and innovativeness.

What is the difference in terms of indicators?  I.e. Does a 2nd order construct have indicators?  If, so under what conditions? 

As highlighted in question nine, 1st order constructs have observable indicators while 2nd order constructs have unobservable indicators (Ping Jr., 2002). A formative relationship between constructs and indicators is witnessed in 1st order constructs. For one to observe indicators in second order construct, first order constructs have to be one-dimensional and exploratory factor analysis has to be conducted.

  1. Relationships between constructs via regression modeling, path modeling, or structural modeling.

What is Explained Variance?  What does it apply to i.e. what type of variable?  What is the Statistic used?  What is an acceptable level?

Explained variance is used to explain the measure “for the validity of formative constructs” and it “reflects whether the construct is sufficiently captured by its formative indicators” (Döscher, 2014). It is applied to assess the incompleteness of different indicators. In particular, its statistic is R2, and its acceptable level is 0.748 (Döscher, 2014).

What is Effect Size?  What does it apply to?  What are possible statistics used? What are acceptable levels?

Effect size (ES) refers to the quantitative comparison of two groups when the impact of treatment effect is assessed (University of Oxford, 2017). Specifically, ES is applied to evaluate the effectiveness of a particular intervention. When calculating ES there are different levels, for instance, 0.2 (small effect size), 0.5 (medium effect size), and 0.8 and above (large mean effective size) derived when Cohen formula is used (University of Oxford, 2017). The acceptable level is 0.8 and above given that it represents significant correlations between two groups.

For a regression model – what is statistic used measure the general relationship between two variables?  What are acceptable Levels?

In the regression model, the statistic used to measure the relationship between different variables is regression function. R2, calculated in regression analysis, assumes values that are between 0 and 1. Hence, the acceptable values have to be closer to 1 and not 0.

For a path model or structural model what is the statistics used to measure the relationship between two variables?  What are acceptable Levels?

In path model or structural model, the statistic used is to measure the relationship between variables is Absolute Fit Index and the acceptable level is 0.08.

What are some differences between the statistic used in regression model and the one in the path or structural model?

The difference between the statistic that is used in the regression model and the one path or structural model is how they describe the relationship between variables. For example, in regression, they illustrate the relationship that exists between a response variable and predictor variables (Henseler, Ringle, & Sinkovics, 2009). On the other hand, in path or structure model, a statistic used shows significance and goodness fit (Statistic Solutions, 2017).

  1. If the measurement model comes up with acceptable and the relationships between variables (variance, effect size, and regression/path statistic) are acceptable, what does this indicate about the hypothesis they are testing?

In the event that different measurement models used to validate the acceptable and prove the relationship between variables, then, the hypotheses can be considered to be valid as well as reliable.




  1. What are the major variables being studied, how many indicators are there, are they reflective or formative?

The first variables are as examples.

Name of Variable # of Indicators or Sub-dimensions Reflective or Formative
Perceived Ease of Use 3 Indicators Reflective
Perceived Usefulness 3 Indicators Reflective
Perceived Enjoyment 3 Indicators Formative
Computer Playfulness 3 Indicators Formative
Computer Self-Efficacy 4 Indicators Formative
Computer Anxiety 3 Indicators Formative
Behavioral Intention 3 Indicators Reflective
The impact of transformational leadership on employee creativity: the role of learning orientation
Transformation Leadership 4 Sub Dimensions Reflective
Employee Outcome 4indicators Reflective
Transformational Leadership 4indicators Reflective
Learning Orientation 4indicators Reflective
Intellectual Stimulation 1 Indicator Reflective
Inspirational Motivation 1 Indicator Reflective
Idealized Influence 1 Indicator Reflective
Individual Consideration 1 Indicator Reflective
Intellectual Stimulation 1 Indicator Reflective
Employee Creativity 2 Indicators Formative



EXPLORING INTENTIONS TO USE VIRTUAL WORLDS FOR BUSINESS  The impact of transformational leadership on employee creativity: the role of learning orientation
What Tool (software) was used to Test the Model.

SmartPLS Software


What Tool (software) was used to Test the Model.

Analysis of a Moment Structures (AMOS)

How was Indicator Reliability tested and what statistics did they use?

Indicator reliability was tested through the assessment of composite reliability. The statistic used was above 0.70 for each variable.

How was Indicator Reliability tested and what statistics did they use?

Indicator reliability was tested through the assessment of composite reliability. The statistic used was 0.982.


How was construct internal consistency reliability tested and what statistics did they use?

It was tested using Cronbach’s Alpha. The statistics used was above 0.79.


How was construct internal consistency reliability tested and what statistics did they use?

It was tested using Cronbach’s Alpha. The statistics used was 0.792.

How was convergent validity tested and what statistics did they use?

Convergent validity was tested through the use of T-analysis. The statistics used was in the ranges of 0.80 (lower bound) to 0.90 (high bound).

How was convergent validity tested and what statistics did they use?

Convergent validity was tested through the use of Bentler-Bonnet Delta Coefficient. The statistics used was 0.961.


How was discriminant validity tested and what statistics did they use?

Discriminant validity was tested by arranging the variables in a diagonal matrix and comparing them with the square roots of Average Variance Extracted (AVE). The statistics used ranged between 0.11 (lower bound) and 0.95 (high bound).


How was discriminant validity tested and what statistics did they use?

Similar to convergent validity, discriminant validity was tested through the use of Bentler-Bonnet Delta Coefficient. The statistic that was used was 0.961.


Path or Structural Relationship
Was Explained Variance for appropriate variables addressed?  What was the statistic used?

Explained variance for appropriate variables was not addressed.


Was Explained Variance for appropriate variables addressed?  What was the statistic used?

The Explained variance for appropriate variables was addressed. The statistics used was 60%.

Was Effect Size between appropriate variables addressed?  What was the statistic used?

Effect size between appropriate variables was not addressed.

Was Effect Size between appropriate variables addressed?  What was the statistic used?


Effect size between appropriate variables was not addressed.

What statistic was used to articulate the relationship between the variables?

The statistic that was used to articulate the relationship between variables was path model analysis.

What statistic was used to articulate the relationship between the variables?

The statistic that was used to articulate the relationships between variables was path model analysis.



Which paper addressed more “measurement and or regression” statistics?

Exploring Intentions to use Virtual Worlds for Business, by Shen and Eder (2009), employed more measurement or regression statistics compared to the other source. Hence, the above-mentioned paper was rigorous in testing hypotheses from an inferential statistic perspective.








Awang, Z. (n. d.). Chapter 3: In A handbook on SEM. Research Gate. Retrieved from

Bhattacherjee, A. (2012). Social science research: Principles, methods, and practices. Text Books Collections.

Döscher, K. (2014). Recovery Management in Business-to-Business Markets: Conceptual Dimensions, Relational Consequences and Financial Contributions. Springer Science & Business Media.

Gefen, D., Straub, D., & Boudreau, M. C. (2000). Structural equation modeling and regression: Guidelines for research practice. Communications of the association for information systems, 4(1), 7.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009).  The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. In New challenges to international marketing (pp. 277-319). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Jyoti, J., & Dev, M. (2015). The impact of transformational leadership on employee creativity: the role of learning orientation. Journal of Asia Business Studies, 9(1), 78-98.

O’Leary, M. (2004). Measuring disaster preparedness: A practical guide to indicator development and application. iUniverse.

Ping Jr., R. (2002). Testing latent variable models with survey data. Retrieved from

Shen, J., & Eder, L. B. (2009). Exploring intentions to use virtual worlds for business. Journal of electronic commerce research, 10(2), 94.

Statistic Solutions (2017). Path analysis. Retrieved from

University of Oxford. (2017). What is an effect size? Retrieved from

Weigl, T. (2008). Strategy, structure and performance in a transition economy. Springer Fachmedien.



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CASE 2Measurement Instrument and Variable Relationships Assessments in Support of Hypothesis Testing

Assignment Overview
This Case Assignment starts with a general understanding of how measurement instruments and variable relationships are assessed. That knowledge is applied to the assessment of two papers.

Important: We will also see that every researcher not only doesn’t use the same tools but address less mechanisms for assessing the instruments and variable relationships.

Case Assignment
After reviewing the required readings found in the module background section, obtain the following document through the electronic library.

Shen, J. &amp; Eder, L. B, (2009), Exploring Intentions to Use Virtual Worlds for Business, Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, VOL 10, NO 2

Jyoti, J., and Dev, M. (2015). The impact of transformational leadership on employee creativity: the role of learning orientation, Journal of Asia Business Studies, 9(1).

Go to the case shell and address the questions identified within. The first part of the assignment uses the background reading. The second part uses the documents above.

Assignment Expectations
Students will be able to:

Assess a measurement instruments and associated measurement models.
Assess relationships between variables in a regression, path, or structural model.
Understand that different statistical analysis software (tools) present different statistics.

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Preferred lаnguаge stуle: English (U.K.) <br /><br />Assessment criteriа:<br /><br />Essay (2500 wоrds)<br /><br />Word count or equivalent: 2500 (excluding references and patient profile)<br /> <br />The essay requires you to critically analyse your contribution to the care and management of a critically ill level 3 patient. In the essay you will be expected to firstly demonstrate a detailed knowledge of the pathophysiological basis of the patient’s problems, Secondly, show evidence of good critiquing skills in evaluating research findings so that you can determine appropriate therapeutic interventions and contribute to advance in practice. You will also be expected to demonstrate the ability to critically challenge practice taking into account the dynamic social, cultural, spiritual, legal, political and economic factors affecting intensive care nursing practice. You will need to demonstrate ethical discernment and sound clinical judgment in arguing clinical support of critically ill patients and in advocating and leading intensive nursing care practice initiatives.<br /><br />You will be assessed according to the College of Nursing, Midwifery & Healthcare generic marking criteria .These criteria grade your work under the following categories:<br />Degree to which each learning outcome has been achieved<br />Structure<br />Writing<br />Style<br />Sources / Evaluation of literature<br />Referencing<br /><br />The essay requires you to critically analyse and evaluate your contribution to the care and management of a critically ill patient and demonstrate enhanced synthesis with regard to future care recommendations. This patient should have received multiple organ support (at least 2 systems e.g. respiratory, cardiac, renal) in order for you to demonstrate the breadth and depth of your knowledge. The work should be a reflective critique of the care that you provided during one period of care, for example – one shift. “YOUR PATIENTS PROFILE” is essential in this Essay.<br /><br />ESSAY:<br /><br />The work should start with an explicit introduction, clearly outlining the content of your paper and highlighting for the reader what will be discussed during the course of it. <br /><br />Within the body of the essay we only expect you to discuss the pathophysiological impact and management of three of the patient’s bodily systems. If more were involved, acknowledge these and then indicate which systems you will focus on. Remember to refer back to your patient profile as you discuss the management of each of the systems within your essay.<br /><br />Discuss the pathophysiology behind the reason for your patient’s admission and then describe the process that caused this to impact on the other organs involved, for example; if your patient was septic- where did the infection occur? What was the pathophysiological process that occurred as a result? How did this then spread systemically to have an effect on the other organs that required support during your shift?<br /><br />Critically analyse and evaluate the care that you provided for your patient in response to the physiological processes affecting each of the systems you have identified, including the physiological actions of any drugs that were being administered.<br /><br />You should provide detailed rationales for the care that was delivered, an evaluation of the effectiveness of these and reflection on alternative management strategies. You could also suggest how the care you provided could be enhanced in the future as a result of your experience in this situation, especially with regard to other therapies that could be initiated. When managing patient’s haemodynamic status for example, you may wish to explore the type of fluids administered to improve intravascular volume or debate different advanced methods of haemodynamic assessment that may have been appropriate for the patient’s condition.<br /><br />You will also need to consider the wider dimensions of care delivery when nursing a critically ill patient, for example; any socio-cultural, socio-economic, ethico-legal, professional or political issues impacting on decision making and patient management. Ethical factors in particular should be addressed as these are always present in level 3 care (to a greater or lesser extent). You can raise these points at any appropriate place within the work, for example, if you are discussing limitation of therapy with regards to escalation of inotropic support this may be discussed within the cardiovascular management of the patient. Your work should also demonstrate your ability to identify the strategic role of the experienced intensive care nurse, both in terms of expert care delivery, shift co-ordination and team management. <br /><br />Your conclusion for the essay should provide a summary of what you have written; therefore the patient’s admission, organ failure and management in a concise paragraph.<br /><br />Finally, please remember !<br /> <br />When you have written your essay you should ensure that it meets the assignment criteria above i.e. that it includes: <br /><br />The pathophysiological basis of the patients problems <br />A critical analysis of practice taking into account the dynamic social, cultural, spiritual, legal, political and economic factors affecting intensive care nursing.<br />Evaluation of research findings to determine appropriate therapeutic interventions. <br />Consideration of wider issues impacting on care delivery; in particular ethical discernment and clinical judgment in arguing support of critically ill patients and of intensive care practice initiatives<br />Strategic care delivery and leadership in practice.

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